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Think Learn & Perform (TLP): GS Mains Synopsis [Day 29]

  • September 29, 2015
  • 3
Think and Learn-2015, TLP Mains 2015, UPSC, UPSC Mains- Think and Learn-2015
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TLP: GS Mains Synopsis [Day 29]

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Q.1) Monsoon is our finance minister and it is not just capricious, but perhaps the most globalized Indian. Do you agree? Substantiate your arguments by taking into consideration the extreme weather events of the past few years.

The Top Answer for this question is written by – Santhosh Venkatesh

Ans) Monsoons are complex climate systems that humankind is not able to decipher even now. It directly or indirectly determines three economic policies of government like a finance minister.

– Around 60% of Net sown area is rainfed. Even in 60-80% of irrigated areas source is groundwater supply. If monsoons fail or is erratic, drought and flooded regions demand relief measures thereby increasing burden on Exchequer

– Due to Demand-supply mismatch during Monsoon-deficit periods Inflation can occur. Eg need of pulses and oil import was felt recently.

– RBI has shown concerns regarding El Nino’s impact on Food prices and has shown caution in reducing interest rates thus indirectly affecting them.

Though Monsoons affect India, the reason for its erratic behaviour is from all over the world thus being a Capricious Globalised Indian

– EL-Nino ELSO Oscillation and Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) – El- Nino is a result difference in temperature of waters in Pacific Ocean, but affects IOD and Indian monsoon. Worst drought of 2009 was in an El- Nino year.

– The Heating of Tibet plateau, 2nd Equatorial trough, Easterly jet stream and Somali Jet stream determine the strength of monsoon.

– The withdrawal of Sub Tropical Westerly jet is also linked to onset of monsoon.

Hence India needs to invest simultaneously for R&D in Climate science and mitigation measures for Agriculture.


Q.2) Census in India doesn’t reveal the quality of its people – it only reveals the quantity. Critically comment.

The Top Answer for this question is written by – SK

Ans) Census is an exercise that quantifies data on various factors like demography, literacy, mortality and fertility etc.

Census reveals only quantity, but not quality –

According to Census 2011, literacy rate has increased in the country. But the Annual State of Education Report found that only half of Class V school children could read Class II text. When it comes to adult literacy levels, it is much worse. So, census data doesn’t reveal quality.

Latest Census shows that no. of people in urban areas are increasing. This doesn’t show their quality of life.

Similarly, recently Religious data has also been released for the first time. It doesn’t provide any substantiation to Sachar Committee findings that Muslims are backward socially and economically. Thus, quality is missing in the census data.

Census reveals quality also –

Though Census is a numerical data, we can infer quality for certain factors.

Adult Sex Ratio and Child Sex Ratio: Latest Census shows that states like Haryana are poor in both. This reveals the patriarchal nature of society and discrimination against girl child.

Density: States like Delhi, West Bengal are found to have higher densities compared to others. Where density is more, it can be logically concluded that there would be more competition for resources, and hence strain on life.

Hence, for certain factors it is only a quantity, for certain others, it is both quantity and quality.


Q.3) In an urban area, the precipitation pattern varies greatly from that of rural areas. Why? Also explain the phenomena of fog and photo-chemical smog in an urban area.

The Top Answer for this question is written by – SK

Ans) In general, the precipitation levels in urban areas is more compared to the rural areas. This is due to following factors:

  1. Urban Heat Island Effect: Temperatures in cities are usually more because of less trees, metals in the buildings which reflect radiation, heat released from factories and automobiles etc. Higher temperatures cause air to rise and condense quickly.
  2. Pollution: Release of particulate matter and other dust particles into air help in faster condensation of water vapour.
  3. Tall Buildings: They help in the convective activity of the heated air.

Fog in urban areas

Fog is a lower-level cloud which reduces the visibility to less than one kilometre. It is formed when water vapour in the air is condensed into tiny liquid water droplets at near ground level. Presence of dust particles and tiny particulate matter help in condensing water vapour. Condensation takes place when the difference between temperature of the air and dew point is less than 2.5 degrees C.

Photochemical Smog in urban areas

It is a condition in the atmosphere produced by reactions between primary air pollutants like oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), volatile organic compounds, in the presence of sun light, to produce hazardous chemicals known as secondary pollutants. The temperature should be usually greater than 18 degrees C. Smoke from industries is a major factor in the formation.


Q.4) Analyse critically whether the existing Cropping pattern in different parts of India need any change for better agricultural performance with respect to productivity, sustainability and droughts.

The Top Answer for this question is written by – Santhosh Venkatesh

Ans) Cropping pattern is the proportion of area that is under various crops at a given point of time. In India they are determined by Geo-climatic, Socio-cultural and Economic factors.

There are some inherent advantages of current cropping pattern in India

– After Green revolution ,the productivity of arid regions of Punjab and Haryana have improved.

– Large cultivation of cereal crops such as rice and wheat have ensured food security.

– The current cropping pattern is linked to house hold food security of farmers.

– The current cropping pattern of Kharif, Rabi and Zaid is a result of Socio-cultural and historic factors such as choice of staple food, religious beliefs etc.

But the cropping pattern needs certain changes because

– The increase of productivity in arid regions has come at cost of reduction of ground water table and increase in salinity of soil.

– Lack of knowledge of Global demand decreases profitability of farmers.

– MSP’s have shifted farmers to grow safe high value crops which inhibit crop diversification.

– Use of pesticides and fertilizers has decreased fertility of soil.

– Although cereals ensure food productivity they do not ensure Nutritional security. Hence hardy crops such as millets need to be popularised.

Hence Agro-Climatic and Sustainable planning is the need of hour. Recent initiatives such as Soil health and Maharashtra governments “Beyond sugar” are a step in right direction.

The other Top Answer for this question is written in Hindi by – Sun_Light

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????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????, ????? ?? ?????? ?? ????????? ???????????? ??? ?? ??? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ?????????? ?? ????? ??, ????

?. ??????? ???????????, ???????, ????? ?? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ???-??, ??? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????, ???? ???? ??? ??? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ??, ?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ????, ???? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??? ??, ?? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ???? ????? ??|

  1. ????? ??? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ????????? ??? ?? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ??, ?? ???? ?? ????????? ??? ???? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?????|
  2. ????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????, ????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ???? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ???? ??|

??? ????? ?? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ??? ???????, msp ??? ?? ????? ????????? ???? ?????|


Q.5) Coastal regions of India have great tourism potential. Which coastal topographies attract tourists to the coastal states? Explain by taking suitable examples. What strategies can be adopted to improve the potential of coastal tourism?

The Top Answer for this question is written by – Heidi

Ans) India is incredibly gifted by nature with its geographic wonders ranging from Great Himalayas in the north to Blue waters in the south. Our coastal features include –

  1. Coral Reefs- Gulf of Kutch, Gulf of Mannar, Agatti Island beach, Laksha Dweep
  2. Rocky Shores- Coastal areas of Uttara Kannada along with western ghats
  3. Easturine Lagoons- House boat tourism and water sports. eg: Chilka lake in Odisha, Wembanad lake in Kerala.
  4. Mangrove Swamps- Mangrove forests in Sundarbans. Gulf of kutch, Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  5. Coastal Forests- with rich biodiversity and unexplored anthropological treasure eg: Radhanagar beach in Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Coastal Tourism requires systematic developments with strategies including

Integrated Tourism Planning

– Bringing together different components like government, local population, market elements etc to improve coastal environment, infrastructure

Ecological Foot Print

– Use of eco-friendly and recyclable products, advanced waste management mechanism to keep the coastal tourist spots clean and beautiful.

Tourism Carrying Capacity

– Ensuring maximum number of visitors without causing damage to physical, economic and socio- cultural environment.

Integrated Coastal Zone Management

– Proactive resource management for sustainable coastal development without compromising legal, environmental and cultural restrictions.

Better Infrastructure and Services

– Providing better food and accommodation services along with tourist attractions like water sports, surfing, under water tourism, marine Museum etc

India has unexplored tourism potentials to be exploited economically and hence require proactive tourism initiatives.

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