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IASbaba’s Daily Current Affairs – 2nd & 3rd October, 2015-हिंदी

  • October 9, 2015
  • 3
IASbaba's Daily Current Affairs Analysis, IASbaba's Daily Current Affairs October 2015, International, National, UPSC
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IASbaba’s Daily Current Affairs – 2nd & 3rd Oct, 2015 ?????

NATIONAL

 

What the world has done to the Victim?

8th September, 2015: Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) ?? 15 ??? ???? ???? |

2015 – 2030: ??? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????

 

Health & MDGs-The Indian Perspective:

5 ?? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ?? ???:

  • ??????: 38 ?? ??? ???? ?????? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ???
  • National Rural Health Mission ?? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??????
  • ?? ????????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ?? |
  • Recognition of Empowered Action Group (EAG) States ?? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ????? ???? ???? |

???? ?????? ?? ??? ???

  • ??????? ?? ?????????? ?? ??????? ?? 42 ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???
  • ????: ???? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ??????
  • 1990 ?? ??? ?? 65% ?? ??????; ????? 75% ?? ?????? (MDGs) ?? ?????? ??? ????
  • Issues:
    • ???????? ?? ????? ???? :???????? ??? + ???? ??????? ?? ????
    • ???? ???? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?? ?????
    • ?????????? ????????? + ??????? + ?????
    • ???? ??????? ????? ? ??????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ??????????? ???? ?? ???

?? ???? ????? ??? ?

  • ????? ??????? ?? ??????,??? ?????? ???????? ?? ???-??????? ????????? ????????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?? |
  • ????? NRHM + ICDS ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ????? ??? ???? ??? |
  • ??-?-??? ????????? ???????? ?? ????: ??????? ?? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ??,?? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ,????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ???

Halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS:

  • India on-track

Halt and reverse the spread of malaria and other diseases

  • Moderately on-track

 

Structural defects of MDGs:

  • ?????? ?? ???-??? ??? ?? ???????? ?? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ?? |
  • ????????? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??? ???? ????? |

 

IASbaba’s Views:

  • ????????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ?? ‘??????? ??????’ ?? ??? ??? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?? |
  • ????? ???????? ???????????,?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ????????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ???
  • ?? ??????, ????? ?????? ?? ?? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ???????? ?? ????????? ?? ???? ????

 

Connecting the Dots:

  • ???? ???? ?? ?????????? ????????? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ?? ?? ????? ???????
  • ????????? ?? ?????????? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?????????? ?? ??????????? ????????? ?? ?????????? ????????? ???????? ???? ??? ?? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????

 

INTERNATIONAL

India and Comprehensive Nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT)

What is Comprehensive Nuclear test ban treaty (CTBT)?

  • CTBT ?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ????????? ??????? ???????? ??? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?? ????????? ??? ?? ?????????? ???? ??: ???????? ?????????? ????? ?? ????? ???????? ??????? ?? ??????? ?? ??????????? ??? ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ?????????? ???? ???? ???????
  • CTBT 1996 ??? ????????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??? ????? 2015 ?? ?????? ?? ??????,
  • 164 ??????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ?? 19 ??????? ?? ????????? ??? ???, ????? ?????? ???? ?? ???
  • ???, ?????, ????, ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ???

In yellow- Annex 2 – Signed

In Pink – Annex2 – Non-signatory

CTBT_Participation-min

  • ????, ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????????????? ??? ?? ???????? ????????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ???? (????? -2) ?? ????????? ????? ?? 1998 ??? ??????? ?? ?? ??? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?? 13 .09 .2006 ??? ??? ?? ????? ??????? ???

  • ???????? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???????????? ????? ?? ??? ??? ???????? ??? 44 ????? ?? ????????? ?? ????????? ?? ???????? ?? ?? ?? ??? ??? ???? ???? ??????, ??? ?? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ????, ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ????????? ?? ????????? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ?? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ???????, ???, ??????, (???? ?? ?? ????????? ??? ???), ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ???????? ???

Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization(CTBTO)

{CTBTO is the preparatory commission which establishes global verification regime to monitor compliance with the CTBT. The verification regime includes a global network of 330 plus monitoring facilities using seismic, hydroaucostic, infrasound and radionuclide technologies. }

  • 89 ????? ??? 300 ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?? ???
  • {The International Monitoring System (IMS) monitors the Earth’s crust, listens the atmosphere and oceans and sniffs the air for traces of radioactivity.}
  • ??????? ???????, ?? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ????? ?? | ???? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?? ,?????? ???????? ?? ????? ,??????? ????? ???? ?? ?
  • ?? ?????? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ????? 2011 ???????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???,CTBTO ???? ???? ??????? ?? ??????????? ???????? ?? ???? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ?? ?

????? ???? ?? CTBT ?? ????????? ???? ???? ?

?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????? ?? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ?? ??, ?? 1996 ??? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ???

????, ????????? ??????? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ?? ???? ????? ?? ???????

  • ??????????? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ???????, ????? ???? ?? ?? 2000 ?? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ?? , ????? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?? |
  • ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ???-???? ?? ???????????? ??????? ????
  • ???????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???????? ????? ??, ????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????????? (???-?????? ????????) ?? ??? ??? ??????, ????????, ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ??????? ???? ?? |

???? ??  NPT ?? CTBT ?? ????????? ???? ???? ??? ???? ???? ???????? ?? ?? ?? ????  ?? ?????? ???????????? ?? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ??| ????? ?????? ??????? ???????????? ?? ????? ???? ??  ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ???

???? ?? ?????? ????????????

???? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ???????? ???????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? CTBT ?? ?? ???????? ????? ????? ???

  • 1974 ?????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???, ???? ?? ????-???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???? ???? ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ?????
  • ??? 1978 ???, ???????????? ??????? ????? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ?????
  • ???????????? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ??????? ???????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? 1982 ??? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ????
  • ????? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ?????????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?? 22 ??? ?? ?? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????????? ?? ???????? 1988 ??? ?? ????? ????? ?? ??? ????
  • 1993 ???, ???? ????????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ??-????????? ????
  • {Post May 1998 (Pokhran 2), India continued to adopt a flexible position on the CTBT and indicated its willingness to discuss a “de jureformalization”of its voluntary moratorium on future nuclear testing.}
  • ????-??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ????????? ????, ???? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???

????????? ??? ????????????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?? ?? “?????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ??????? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??? ???????”

?? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ???????? ??  ???????????? ?? ????????? ?? ?? ???????? ???? ?? ?? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?? |

Why India should accede to CTBT?

  • ?? CTBTO ?? ?????????????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ???
  • ?????? ???????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ??? ?? ????????? ???????? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ??????????? ???? ?????
  • ??????? ?????? ???????? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ??????, ??????? ?????? ???????????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ?????????? ???? ?? ????
  • ???? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? ?? ??????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ?? ???? the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) and the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). ????? ?? ?? (???????? ?? ????????? ????) ?? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ????, ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??????

Once India signs the CTBT, some of the other hold-out states are likely to follow, such as Pakistan. Others like the U.S. (whose Senate is blocking the ratification though the U.S. government has signed it) and China would also come under pressure to accede to it. ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ????? |?? ???? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ?? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ?? ??? ??? ??? ?? ? ????? ???????? ?? ????????? ???? ???? ?? ???????? ???-??? ??? ???

 

 Way forward to India:

???? ?? ??? ?? ???????? ???? ?????

  • ???? ????, ???????? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ?? ??????? ‘???? ?????? ? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ???, ???? ????????? ???? ????? ?? ??? ??????
  • ?? ?????, ???????? ?? ????????? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ?????? ???????????? ?? ??? ???  ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ?? ???  ????????????? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ‘?????’ ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????

 

Background:

Partial/Limited Test Ban Treaty (P/LTBT)

??????? ??? 1952 ??? ?? ????????? ?? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ??????????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??  ?? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ?? 1961 ??? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ?? ?????

  • PTBT ??????? ??? ?????? ???????, ???? ?? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ????, ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ???? ??, ?? 1963 ??? ????????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ??????? ????????????? ??????? ??? ?? ????????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??, ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ??? ????? ?? ????????????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ????.
  • ???? ?? ????????? 1963 ??? ?? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ???? ????
  • (Since it was signed, a total of 1372 underground nuclear explosions have been conducted between 1964 and 2006; this number stands in contrast to the 461 atmospheric and including underwater nuclear tests that were conducted between 1945 and 1963.}

 

No first use policy (NFU)

NFU ?? ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????????? ?? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ?? -?? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ? ??? ?? ?? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ? ???? ????, ??????? ?? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ???? ??? ???

  • ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? “?? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ??” ?? ??? ?? , ???? ???????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ???? ???
  • ?????????, ???, ???????? ??????, ??????? ????? ???????, ?? ??????, ?? ?? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ?? ???? ????????? ??? ?? ?? ?? ????? ?? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???????? ???????
  • ??? NFU ?? ???????? ?? ???? ????????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?? ?? ??? ?? 1964 ??? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ??? |
  • ???? ?? 1999 ??? nuclear no-first-use policy ???? ?? ????? ?? ?? |
  • 2001-2002 ??? ???? ?? ????????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ???? no-first-use policy ?? ???? ?? ????????? ????

 

Connecting Dots:

  • ???? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ?????? ????? ???????
  • ???? ???? ?????? ???????????? ?????? ??? ?? ?????????? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ???? ?? ???? ???? ???? ????????? ???????
  • “????-??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????????? ???? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???? ?????????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???” ?????? ?????? |

 

 

ENVIRONMENT

???????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ?? INDCs ?? ????? ??

??????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ?? INDCs ?? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ?????????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? |

????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ??:

  • ???????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ???????? ??????? ??? ???,
  • ?? ??????? ??? ??????, ??
  • ????? ??????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???????

???? ?? Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ?

  • ???? ?? INDCs ?? ???????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ?? ???-??? ????? ??????? ?? ?? ???? ?? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ??????
  • ???? ?????? ????? ?? ??? INDCs ??????, ????????? ?? ????????????? ??? |
  • ???? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ???? |
  • ???????? ??? ??? ?? ???????????? ???? ?? ?????, ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ?? |

{There is a possibility of India emulating the Western ‘model’ of development at home, which encourages a market-driven consumer culture.}

???? ?? ????? ????????, ???? 3 ????? ?? |

  • ?????? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ??? ????? ???? ????? ?? ?? ?????????? ????? ???
  • ?????? ?? ?????????? ???????? ?????? ?? ??? ???? 6 ???????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???, ????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ??? ????? ???? ???
  • ?? ???????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ?? |

The SDGs emphasize the importance of “responsible consumption and production”

 

About SDG:

??? ????? ??????  (???????) ?? ??????? ??????, ?? ?????? ???? ???

  • ?? ????-?????? ????????????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ??? ?? ???? ???
  • 2015 ?? ??? ?? ?????????? ????? ???????? ?? ???? ?????

17 SDG Goals:

  1. ?? ??? ???? ??? ????? ??? ????? ??????
  2. ?????? ?? ??? ,????? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? |
  3. ?????? ???? ????????? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?? ????? ?? ????? ???? ???? |
  4. ??????? ?? ????????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???? ?? ??? ?? ??? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ??????
  5. ?????? ?????? ??????? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ?? ?????
  6. ??? ?? ??? ???????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ???????? ????????? ????
  7. ??? ?? ??? ?????, ?????????, ????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ????? ?????????
  8. ??? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????, ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ?? ?????? ????
  9. ????? ???????? ????? ?? ???????, ??????? ?? ??? ?????????? ?? ???? ?????? ?? ?????? ????
  10. ???? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ?? ????
  11. ????? ?? ???? ????????, ??????? ????????, ????? ?? ????? ?????
  12. ?????? ??? ?? ??????? ?????? ????????? ????
  13. ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ????????
  14. ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?????????, ?????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????
  15. ??? ????? ?? ??? ?????????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ???? ,??? ?? ??? ????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ???????, ??????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ?? |
  16. ??? ????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ??????????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ?????????? ???? |

 

Connecting the dots:

  • ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ?? Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) ?? ????? ???? ???? ????
  • ??????? ??? ?? ???? Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) ?? SDG ?? ??????? ???????

 

???? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????

???? ?????? ???????? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ???? ??? ??:

  • ???? ???????????? ?? ?? ???? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???
  • ?????? ????? ?? ?? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? 2005 ?? ???? ?? 2030 ?? 33-35 ????? ?? ?????

????, ????? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?????

  • ???? ?? 2030 ?? ??? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? 40 ????? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? |
  • ????? ??????? ??????? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ???????? ?????

???? ?? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ???

* ???? ?? ???? 2030 ?? ?????? ??????? ??? 33-35 ?????? ????? ?? ????????? ?? ?? |
*??? “??? ????????” ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ??? |
* ????? ??? ?????? ??? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ?? ???

??????? ???????:

  • ??? ??????? ??? ???;
  • ?????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?? ???????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ??????????? ????
  • ????? ?????? ??? 1 ??? ?? ???? ????? ?? ??? ????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???? ????, ??????? ????? ??????????????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??????????? ?? ?? ?????

??? ?? ??????:

  • ???? ??? 25 ???? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ????? ???? ??,?? ??????? ?? ??? 100,0000 ??? ??? ?? ??????? ??????,?? ??? ?? ??? ??? 55,000 ??????? ??? ??? ??? ????????? ????? ?
  • ?? “???????” ??????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ?? ??? ???? ???

{Plansare “fair and ambitious considering the fact that India is attempting to work towards low carbon emission pathway while endeavoringto meet all the developmental challenges the country faces today.”}

Funds Needed:

  • ???? ?? ????, ??????, ?????? ???? ?? ???????? ?????, ?? ?????? ?? ???????????? ?????????? ??? ??????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ?? ??? 2015 ?? 2030 ?? ??? $206 ?????? ?? ????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?????
  • ?????? ????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ???????? ????
  • (A preliminary estimate suggests that at least $2.5 trillion will be required for meeting India’s climate change actions between now and 2030)

Connecting the dots:

  • ???? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ??? ????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ???? ???????? ????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ??? ??? ???? ????
  • ???? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ??? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?? ????? ?? ??? ?? ????? ?? ???? ?????????? ??????? ???? ??? ?? ????????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ???

 

 

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