1. Even though the Non-Cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movement had ended in apparent failure, the national movement had been strengthened in many ways? Do you agree? Substantiate.
The question has itself mentioned that the movements had ended in “apparent” failure. “Apparent” is a keyword here. Many of you have mentioned that the movements were a failure, in your introduction. Which itself will make your answer incorrect.
This question can be approached by two ways- dealing with one movement at a time or combining the two and writing the common points.
We would suggest the later approach as it will save some words and still convey what the examiner is looking for.
How that national movement was strengthened?
Most of you have written beautiful points. Some of the important points are:
The movements gave a clear leadership and path to be followed.
They converted a class movement into a mass movement.
Congress emerged as a strong political party , from being just a pressure group. It was perceived as the voice of Indians at large.
They encouraged different sections of society, to contribute towards India’s independence and aroused the feeling of nationalism.
They created awareness regarding rights of Indian people and exploitative policies of the British administration.
These mass movements shake the inherently condescending British Empire to treat Indians on equal footing. Round table conferences were a result of that.
People started taking pride in their Indian Identity and promoted Swadeshi.
These movements nurtured the future leadership of Independent India.
(Give an example if possible for every point)
You can mention about Struggle-Truce-Struggle (STS) policy of Gandhiji.
These movements became the stepping stone towards India’s Freedom. The apparent failure taught great lessons for the future movements and gave an idea of the strength of the masses to Indian leadership and the British Government.
2. The socialist ideals that independent India followed had its roots in the freedom struggle. Do you agree? Who were the eminent proponents of socialist ideals during this phase? Discuss their contributions in the growth of socialist ideas.
Your introduction should include the definition or the ideals of socialism which are presented in the Independent India. Also link it with the Russian Revolution to trace the origin of the movement.
Basic of Socialism
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterized by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production; as well as the political ideologies, theories, and movements that aim at their establishment. Social ownership may refer to forms of public, collective, or cooperative ownership; to citizen ownership of equity; or to any combination of these. Although there are many varieties of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of them, social ownership is the common element shared by its various forms
Trade Unions and labour rights
Various provisions in DPSP
(You can add more points here)
Eminent Proponents & their contribution (Indicative)
Mahatma Gandhi – trusteeship, decentralization.
Jawaharlal Nehru – Before independence he brought socialist ideas to the Indian National Congress and made sure that the preamble of the Constitution of India called India a socialist state. He formed the planning commission of India and led to many socialist reforms in the early years of this nation.
All India Kisan Sabha, Eka movement.
R. Ambedkar – against social discrimination
Subhash Chandra Bose – Forward Bloc party was made to propagate socialist ideas within Congress
Vinoba Bhave – Bhoodan Movement
JP Narayan – Sampoorna Kranti
A. Dange – published a pamphlet titledGandhi Vs. Lenin, a comparative study of the approaches of both the leaders with Lenin coming out as better of the two
N. Roy – Communist party of India
Bhagat Singh – HSRA.
Singaravelu Chettiar – Labour Kisan Party of Hindustan was founded in Madras.
G.Ranga, E.M.S Namboodiripad, Karyanand Sharma, Yamuna Karjee, Yadunandan (Jadunandan) Sharma, Rahul Sankrityayan, P. Sundarayya, Ram Manohar Lohia, Jayaprakash Narayan, Acharya Narendra Dev and Bankim Mukerji – All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS)
At the 1931 Karachi session of theIndian National Congress, socialist pattern of development was set as the goal for India.
Your conclusion should summarize the idea and shows its impact in the present Indian context.
Best answer: Yogesh Bhatt
Socialist ideas deeply rooted in Indian freedom movement but India has not copy paste form other countries rather under Gandhiji leadership it was nurtured. Other than Gandhi ji, Nehru, Subash Bosh, Jayprakash Nrayan, Binova Bhave, and so on follow the path. Main contribution offered by them was following
1- Trusteeship- it is unique combination of capitalism and socialism and under which made richer section of society more responsible to poor people. Cooperative movement, trust model, and now CSR draw inspiration from it.
2- Planned economy model- in 1931 congress choose this model propagated by Nehru and Boss and after independence till today we are following this model for Indian development.
3- Land reform- Bhave focus on Bhoodan and Gaondaan, Nehru policy on jamindari removal, tenancy reforms, and land reconciliation were major steps which had root in socialistic approach.
4- Constitution- Indian constitution made by forefathers draw a lot of motivation for freedom fight and under DPSP, Gandhi socialism and other provisions are gift of socialist ideology of Indian citizens.
5- Rural development model- in post independence like community development programme than idea of panchayat raj, and later many other innovations had strings from socialist ideas.
6- Idea of developmental administration- after colonial administration which was guided by Patel and Nehru had motivation from socialist ideas to deliver the independence promises.
7- Trade unions- farmers’ movement and trade unions was an idea from socialism movement which worked in continuation after independence also.
After 25 year of liberalization, India is still on same path as we have one of the largest social welfare programs in India like MGNREGA and PDS. True we have made important changes in economic policies but it has also strengthened the social movement in India.
3. The INA trials served as a plank for national unity and also a point from where it was impossible for the British to ignore the Indian public opinion. Elucidate.
Note – Understanding the issue: First two paragraphs gives brief description of the issue. You can simplify and use it as intro
In the history of India’s freedom struggle, the INA occupies an important place. At the time when there were all round divisions on the Indian national scene, the INA exhibited complete national unity.
The Indian soldiers fought unitedly for a united India. This armed struggle of the INA forced the British to realise that they could no longer depend upon the loyalty of the Indian Army for the maintenance of their rule in the country. Besides, the countrywide support and sympathy of the Indian masses for the INA and the opposition of the Indian section of the British Indian Army to the INA trials led the British to transfer power through a negotiated settlement. Thus the INA revolt hastened the end of British rule of India.
(Some of the below points should be written in your answers)
INA trials served as a plank for national unity
1) The selection of a Hindu, a Muslim and a Sikh — who hailed from the three principal communities of India — for court martial was taken as a challenge to whole of India. (Strengthened the secular sentiments)
2) Almost all the political parties like Congress, Muslim League, Communist Party, Akalis, RSS, hindu Mahasbha, stood for the cause of INA prisoners which indicates the unity of Indians against the Britishers.
3) Press coverage and other publicity – brought masses from different sections and different part together.
4) First time there were signs of demoralising effect from both civil service and Indian Army personnel. Growth of nationalist feeling generated by the trials affected the Armed Forces and soldiers.
Why it became impossible for the British to ignore the Indian public opinion:
1) Because of its wide geographical reach and the participation of diverse social groups and political parties. INA trials made the masses conscious of their power to gain political freedom.
2) The agitation which surrounded the trial turned the issue of independence for India into an instant, burning question once more. Britishers realised that they were sitting on the brink of a volcano which could erupt any time.
3) The release of INA prisoners made people attain a sense of pride, regained self-respect
4) There was rebellion among masses and since the Army was also in favour of, there was no suppression of rebellion
5) Stirring deeds of the INA caught the imagination of all Indians and the fire of patriotism burned brighter than ever before and found expression in the mutiny in the Indian Navy in Bombay
The INA and the trials gave a powerful and decisive message to the British that they can’t ignore the Indian public opinion and it was time for them to leave.
Best answer: SherniZaad
The INA trials are considered to be a watershed in history of India’s freedom struggle because after this, there was no looking back for the Indians and it also made the Britishers understand that the demands of Indians couldn’t be ignored any further.
1)The campaign against INA trials had wide geographical reach witnessing participation of diverse groups and sections of the population.
2) Almost all the political parties like Congress, Muslim League, Communist Party, Akalis, RSS, hindu Mahasbha, stood for the cause of INA prisoners which indicates the unity of Indians against the Britishers.
3) The agitation gained huge publicity due to wide coverage of press, graffiti, distribution of pamphlets, holding of public meetings.
4) Nation wide celebration of INA Day and INA week filled the country with enthusiasm.
5) India also witnessed massive upsurges during INA trial like strikes by Indian Naval ratings which proved that even army was now against the Britishers.
Thus, the change in the mood of the masses, countywide sympathetic strikes including the revolt of armed forces, various upsurges , paralysis of British hotspots like Calcutta and Bombay marked the beginning of the end of the British rule after which there was no looking back till we got our independence.
4. What do you understand by the term ‘digital divide’? What are its implications for a developing economy like India? Also explain the potential of the Digital India scheme to transform the life of a common Indian.
There are several consequences to occur with the digital divide, namely three effect it has on
Knowledge capital – refers to the skills and knowledge of a person working in a specific field as well as their experiences with that field.
Social capital – refers to the ways in which a society communicates with one another.
Human capital – refers to both intellectual skills of an individual as well as their experiences they possess.
Apart from that,
Global divide: According to World development report digital divide stops developing nations from reaping digital dividends of ICT. It creates economic setbacks for developing nations Ex: Amongst top 20 Internet companies in the world, 13 are American.
(you can add more points here)
Promises of Digital India: (Just for knowledge purpose)
Based on the promises and the pillars of Digital India Scheme, Potential in various sectors should be mentioned.
It will make the common man more empowered.
It will bridge the gap between digital haves and digital have-nots.
Under Digital India, all identities along with the Aadhaar card will be attached with proper thumb and digital identity. Therefore, pilferage, ghost withdrawal and misappropriation will end and the real benefit will go to the poor people.
National optical fiber network (NOFN) for 2,50,000 gram panchayats across the country. Based upon its connectivity, access to Wi-Fi will be given at a particular spot in rural areas like in a school or medical facility. Thereafter, based upon that e-commerce, e-education and e-health benefits will come in a big way.
India has around 90 crore mobile phone users and 30 crore internet connections. The country is the biggest consumer of smartphones after the US. People of India are keen to play with technology. Mobile banking etc. will help in inclusion of common man in proper financial system.
E-kranti, E – basta, SWAYAM, Digi locker, e- NAM, Scholarship scheme, DBT, JAM etc. will help them directly.
(you can add more points or elaborate points with the help of these examples)
Digital divide is a socio-economic inequality based on WHO (person, organization etc.) with WHICH characteristics(demographics), connects HOW (mere access, full connectivity) to WHAT (mobile, computer, tv). For example, in India only 9% of rural population have internet against 53% urban mass; out of this 80% urban populace use it for service related communication against 52% rural masses for entertainment.
Digital divide creates implications as:
#Global divide: According to World development report digital divide stops developing nations from reaping digital dividends of ICT. It creates economic setbacks for developing nations Ex: Amongst top 20 Internet companies in the world, 13 are American.
#Social divide: is marked by illiteracy, lack of skills and awareness in usage of ICT for service delivery (education, healthcare,etc) and transparency in transactions,etc
#Democratic divide: between candidates able to use ICT in their constituency and those who can’t
To bridge this digital divide, DIGITAL INDIA scheme promises to be an ‘enabling’ platform -broadband highways (NOFN), 100% mobile density, electronic manufacturing and eKranti ( electronic service delivery) . This means better education(MOOC) for students, agricultural support for farmers (KISAN SUVIDHA app), help for differently abled, financial inclusion (DBT), boost to start ups, better health services(e-hospital), faster justice delivery(e-court) and inclusion in governance (My gov, etc).
India has been at the forefront of digital revolution and its Aadhaar system has become a model for many other countries. Digital divide can be converted into a huge ICT potential provided govt. initiatives work in tandem with awareness, literacy and skill development. Way ahead lies in developing local language content, affordable data connections and utilizing indigenous manpower and manufactures.
5. Recently, the Parliament passed the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2016. Although a step in a direction to protect and promote child rights, the legislation has attracted criticism from various quarters. Why? What suggestions do you have to address these concerns? Discuss.
(Note: This question was framed from our DNA article. Refer the article below and compare whether your points are in line with the points given.)
A law against children?
Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act
Parliament has passed the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Bill, 2016. The bill was first passed in Rajya Sabha and later in Lok Sabha during Monsoon session of Parliament.
It seeks to amend the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986 to widen the scope of the law against child labour and stricter punishments for violations.
But will it?
Currently, children under the age of 14 are banned only from working in hazardous industries. There was no bar on the employment of children between 14 and 18 years.
Now, the proposed amendments prohibit all work, hazardous or otherwise, for children under 14, who now also enjoy the constitutional right to free and compulsory education.
And for adolescents between 14 and 18 years, whose labour was entirely lawful until now, the law prohibits their employment in work scheduled as hazardous.
It makes child labour a cognizable offence attracting a jail term of up to two years and penalty up to fifty thousand rupees.
The Bill has a provision of creating Rehabilitation Fund has also been made for the rehabilitation of children.
Until here, the amendments made seem good and meant to strengthen legislative framework that prohibits children from employment.
However, on closer scrutiny, the reality of what is being offered is the reverse of what appears on paper.
Ban on hazardous adolescent work drastically reduced to three
Initially 83 works or activities were identified as hazardous and were banned for children under the age of 14. But now this number has been reduced from 83 to only 3.
e. apart from mining and explosives, the law only prohibits processes deemed hazardous under the Factories Act 1948.
In other words, the amended law prohibits only that child work which is considered hazardous for adult workers, without recognising the specific vulnerabilities of children.
Permits children below 14 years to work in non-hazardous “family enterprises”
The amended law permits even children under 14 years to now work in non-hazardous “family enterprises” after school hours and during vacations.
The family is defined to include not just the child’s parents and siblings, but also siblings of the child’s parents. And a family enterprise includes any work, profession or business in which any family member works along with other persons.
In effect, this proviso accomplishes the very opposite of what it claims to do. Instead of ending child labour, it actually makes lawful once again a large part of child work that was earlier unlawful.
It is estimated that around 80 per cent of child labour is in work with family members. This is in farms, forests, home-based work such as bidi rolling, carpet weaving, making of bangles and handicrafts, home-based assembly tasks, domestic work, eateries, roadside garages, and street vending.
The amended act legalises the bulk of child labour while claiming to do the opposite.
What the government has missed?
Under the garb of family-run enterprises, children will also be allowed to work in industries like zari, bangle and carpet making, beedi making, brick kilns, diamond cutting, even scavenging.
The truth is that a number of these industries rely on the small nimble fingers of children and perpetuate a system that thrives on bonded labour, or at best very poor wages.
The government argues that these amendments are being made in response to the socio-economic realities of the country and to allow children to learn traditional crafts after school hours.
A sobering study points out that while combining school and work is a reality for poor children in India, the likelihood of children who work for over 3hours dropping out of school is estimated to be as high as 70%.
In the country where the traffickers passes on as a “Mama” (uncle) or a “Mausi” (aunt), where is the question of state actually being able to monitor the number of hours a child actually works, even if he is actually working in the family enterprise?
Once again it will be the girl child who will be the 1st to be pulled out of school and put into the workforce, as will children from economically weaker section and marginalized section of society – the very children most at risk and whom the Act is largely designed to protect.
Not only will these amendments not help eliminate child labour, but will also in all likelihood, deny our children their rights under the RTE Act, possibly creating the perfect preconditions for some of them to take to juvenile crime.
The argument that has long held sway is that child labour, however unfortunate, is inevitable as long as households remained poor. Only after parents escape poverty will their children be able to enter school. What these claims ignore is that the reverse is far more true. That child labour is indeed a major cause of persisting poverty. That if a child is trapped in labour instead of being able to attend fully to her schooling, she will never be able to escape the poverty of her parents. The child of a sanitation worker, rag-picker, domestic worker or casual labourer is likely to be trapped in the professions of her parents unless she is able to access quality education.
We should not be the generation that will preside over a system when the state dropped the ball – and our children and we pay the price for it, under the garb of doing right for them.
Economic development, investment, women and child welfare and job creation should be given their rightful place in budgetary allocation. Amidst the furore over the recent juvenile crimes and release we should be able to think of such positive steps so that another child is not turned into a criminal because of avoidable circumstances.
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