Science and Technology? developments and their applications and effects in everyday life
Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano?technology, bio?technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.
Exoplanets and NASA’s achievements
Space Science has been an unbound field of exploration. It involves many such unexplained wonders that have been cause of enquiry and experimentation. Developments in the field have eased life in multiple manners from communication to life changing telemedicine and tele-education like experiences.
The quest to find life outside the solar system got a big boost with thediscovery of seven Earth-size extra-solar planets, or exoplanets, orbiting a dwarf star about 40 light years away.
Unlike earlier discoveries of exoplanets, all seven planets could possibly have liquid water — a key to life as we know it on Earth — with three planets having the greatest chance.
This is by far the largest collection of Earth-like planets in the habitable ‘Goldilocks’ zone of a star — neither too close nor too far from a star, which raises the possibility of liquid water being present on the surface.
Only Earth has liquid water in the solar system. Less than a year after scientists announced the discovery of three planets orbiting the dwarf star, the team found four more through intense searches using several ground-based telescopes, including a 20-day continuous monitoring using the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Spitzer Space Telescope.
Since the dwarf star is much cooler than the Sun, the dimming of light each time a planet passes or transits before the star could be easily recorded from Earth unlike in cases when planets transit a Sun-like bright star.
Since the initial discovery of three planets was made using the Chile-based Transiting Planets and Planetesimals Small Telescope, the exoplanet system is called TRAPPIST-1.
Unlike in the case of our solar system, the planets have apparently formed far away from the star and gradually migrated towards it; they share a similar formation history with the Galilean moons, which migrated towards Jupiter after formation.
Another major difference in comparison with the solar system is the tight packing of the seven planets around the star.
The closest planet in the TRAPPIST-1 system takes just 1.5 days to complete an orbit and the farthest one takes 20 days; the orbital period of the planets is also similar to the Galilean moons.
With a fair possibility of liquid water being present on at least three planets, the focus is now on deciphering the climate and chemical composition of their atmosphere.
As a first measure, scientists are keen to know if the planets are Earth-like, by ruling out the presence of hydrogen gas enveloping them.
Mass estimates already suggest that the inner six planets might have a rocky composition, while the one with a low density may have a volatile composition due to the presence of an ice layer or atmosphere.
The composition of the atmosphere can be identified by measuring the wavelength characteristics of light. Since the TRAPPIST-1 system is close by and the star is cool enough, it would be easier to decipher the various critical features of the planets.
If there is life on these planets, we would know this in about 10 years. The search for extraterrestrial life has just become more focused.
Spirit of enquiry and questioning has ensured life evolving on earth. This has further lead to increased understanding of extra terrestrial elements and life beyond. In this light the discovery of NASA holds high relevance. The discovery of seven exoplanets makes the search for extraterrestrial life more exciting
Connecting the dots:
In light of discovery of NASA how important does extra terrestrial life and activities are for life on earth? Discuss.
TOPIC: General Studies 4
Public/Civil service values and Ethics in Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions
Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption.
Tackling political corruption
Background: While writing a separate order for restoring AIADMK Secretary’s conviction and four-year jail term, the SC judge also highlighted the menace of corruption in public life and said it evolves from “moral debasement” of people. The order said that –
Corruption is an insatiable vice for self-aggrandisement by the corrupt.
They take unfair advantage of their power and authority, and those in public office also, in breach of the institutional norms, mostly backed by threatening loyalists.
Thus, both the corrupt and the corruptor are indictable and answerable to the society and the country as a whole.
The order also underlined that corruption by people’s representatives is not only in breach of the oath of office but also in defiance of the undertaking to work for society.
Corruption in high places is a malaise that is easy to diagnose but difficult to cure.
Even when the corrupt are accused before a court, top politicians often pay their way through legal battles, and spend little or no time in detention.
The conviction of AIADMK Secretary is a significant marker in India’s legal and political history and there no denying that the judgment has strengthened confidence in the justice delivery system.
Yet, political corruption still has stronghold in India. The major cause of concern is weakening of political body and law governing the land. People in high office are not innately corrupt but they become so because the system gives them
An elevated sense of their worth
Despite the pride in regular elections being conducted, the biggest source of corruption are also the elections. The proceeds of corruption finds its way into funding election campaigns.
Even the National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution, 2001 noted that “electoral compulsions for funds become the foundation of the whole superstructure of corruption”.
Budget and need for transparency
Union FM announced four steps to increase transparency in the funding
A ceiling of Rs. 2,000 on the amount of cash donation that a political party can receive from one person.
Political parties are entitled to receive donations by cheque or digital mode from their donors.
A new scheme of electoral bonds.
Every political party will have to file income tax returns within the prescribed time limit in order to enjoy tax exemption.
These steps are expected to bring transparency and accountability in political funding while preventing future generation of black money as per government.
Union FM stated about government’s intention to tackle opacity in collection of funds by political parties while presenting the budget.
There is a proposal to bring down anonymous or unnamed cash donations by individuals to political parties from the current Rs. 20,000 to Rs. 2,000.
In doing so, the finance ministry accepted the recommendation of the Election Commission, which had proposed prohibiting “anonymous contributions above or equal to the amount of Rs. 2,000”.
Though there is no constitutional or statutory prohibition on receipt of anonymous donations by political parties, yet underSection 29C of the RPA 1951, political parties have to declare all donations above Rs. 2,000.
Once necessary laws are made, all political parties will have to mandatorily maintain names and address of donors who contribute amounts above Rs. 2,000.
However, EC’s recommendation that no party should be allowed to receive more than Rs. 20 crore or 20% of its overall donations from anonymous sources has yet not been heeded.
True transparency in political funding will only be visible when there are no anonymous donations.
The budget has also proposed an electoral bonds scheme, under which donations would be allowed to be made to political parties by purchasing electoral bonds from authorized banks.
For it, the government would frame a scheme and an amendment would also be made to RBI Act.
Each electoral bond, not elector, will require a serial number which will have to be entered into bank registers along with the names of the donors.
If such a register does not exist, unscrupulous political parties could print bogus electoral bonds akin to the fake stamp paper racket and fake security bonds.
It is also a good option to opt for state-funding of election expenses, however, paucity of funds with state is a major limitation for this option.
Corruption is a result of failure of balance of power. Power in the system has been now so extremely concentrated that governments have become unresponsive and corrupt.
Today, the politics has become so divisive and toxic that everything becomes “suspect”. It is well known that almost all business houses seek a favour from the government of the day. Hence, the anonymity induces moral timidity and financial trickery.
Thus, more teeth should be given to the anti-corruption bodies such as Lokpal and Vigilance Commission, more fast-track courts should be opened for timely and effective justice.
Transparency in public life is a much-desired goal. For it, new norms of a level playing field will need to be institutionalized. For a stable, just and ideal social order as envisaged by our forefathers, every citizen has to be a partner in the process.
Connecting the dots:
What is the meaning of political corruption? How is it generated? What are the consequences of such corruption and how to mitigate and finally eradicate it? Explain in detail.