For Previous TLP (ARCHIVES) – CLICK HERE
SYNOPSIS [30th JULY,2021] Day 145: IASbaba’s TLP (Phase 1): UPSC Mains Answer Writing (General Studies)
1. The sheer interconnectedness of the system gives rise to legitimate concerns regarding the nature and structure of the systems of response, particularly with regard the purported fragmentation of the India’s federal arrangements. Examine in light of India’s federal set up and its internal security preparedness.
Introduce with how internal security has been at centre stage of debates and then contextualise to the federal aspect of question.In next part write what are the issues which hamper the systems response in Indian internal security.In end make some suggestions to complement issues highlighted.Conclusion should be summary based and futuristic.
Internal threats to national security have assumed centre-stage in the debates on Indian security. They have a pan-Indian presence and are no longer confined to India’s north and north-eastern frontiers. Therefore, tackling these threats is a common concern for the Union and the States.Recently there have been rise in terrorism, radicalisation, naxalism and trafficking of drugs which calls into action both the levels of government for better coordinated response in national security issues.
Internal security and Federal response:
- The dynamics of internal security threats that confront India have changed considerably. New threats have emerged, apart from aggravation of the existing ones. The distinction between exclusively external threats like war and external aggression and internal security threats has been blurred.
- For instance, Pakistan’s “sub-conventional warfare strategy” vis-a-vis India is simply “war by other means”. Therefore, after the 1989 Soviet military withdrawal from Afghanistan, Pakistan’s cross-border terrorism poses an externally-fostered internal security threat to India.
- Other internal security threats, like organised crime, terrorism, fake currency notes, illegal migration, trafficking in arms and drugs, gun running and explosives, trans-border infiltration and cybercrimes, have both inter-state and international ramifications.
- It is, therefore, difficult to club these threats under ‘public order’ as many states attempt to do. In fact, the Padmanabhaiah Committee report goes on to call them as “federal offences” since they are detrimental to the “security, unity and integrity” of India apart from having inter-state and international dimensions.
- Although state police forces are the “first responders,” they are not a strong link in the entire response chain. With their restricted territorial jurisdiction and limited resources, state police forces find it difficult to deal with externally-fostered internal security threats or those issues with inter-state or global dimensions. Consider the lackadaisical role of the Punjab Police in the recent terrorist strike at Pathankot.
- The Centre cannot afford to ignore the importance of states to effectively respond to internal security challenges. It needs to empower the states and take them into confidence in the decision-making. For instance, the Centre’s attempt under UPA government to create the National Counter Terrorism Centre failed due to lack of Centre-state coordination in 2009.
- The the handling of the unrest in Jammu and Kashmir, or the blockade of Manipur by the NSCN (IM) or the lack of coordination between the central paramilitary forces and the state police in naxal areas, the federal nature of the Indian polity has brought forth tensions between the Union and the concerned States. Such tensions result in a sub-optimal response to the challenges posed.
- There is multiplicity of agencies within both centre and states which handle the issues on internal security.For example there is police force at state to handle naxalism while the centre can also intervene on naxalism with NIA.
- There have been issues in quick response by centre in certain situations due to political calculations such as the muzzafarpur riots in 2013, while the states have also opposed forceful deployment pf central forces as seen recently in West Bengal.
- The multiparty system and also rise of regional parties post 1970s have made a coordinated response more difficult.
Suggestions for better coordination in internal security:
- While there are ample provisions in the Constitution to deal with the challenges, some amendments may be brought about to clearly spell out the joint responsibilities of the Union and State.
- It may also be useful to constitutionally designate these threats as ‘threats to internal security’. The concept of ‘local emergency’ suggested by the Punchi Commission to limit the scope of the emergency powers of Central forces in a limited area of a state could be introduced by an amendment to the Constitution, as long as it does not impede the institutional and operational requirements.
- Given the lack of consensus on constitutional amendments, it is extremely important to carry out police reforms, reform the criminal justice system and create additional institutions that will help improve Centre-State coordination in implementing existing laws.
- Investigating and security institutions must be accorded functional autonomy by the Constitution. As suggested by the Task force on Internal Security (2001), a separate cadre may be created for managing internal security.
- The necessity of better operational coordination requires that a blue-print be prepared for cooperation between the central forces and state authorities. Such coordination requires that the Chief Judicial Magistrate of the district be made overall in-charge of any operation in the zone of conflict. Best suited police officials must be deployed along with central forces during the conduct of operations and for interrogations.
- These may further be supplemented by the Recommendations of the Task Force on Internal Security made as part of the Recommendations of the Group of Ministers in 2001. A combination of all these measures may result in better internal security management in a multi-party federal polity.
- It is important to de-politicise security. The Constitution should clear the cobwebs on who is responsible for internal security. It could include a new entry – ‘Internal Security’ – in List III (Concurrent List) to enable a clear-cut role for the Centre with the concurrence of the states.
Internal security has evolved from the days of independence.The initial threats of communalism, secession are now multiplied by acts pf terrorism, organised crimes and naxalism.Therefore it is important for a coordinated, faster and effective response to the threats to internal security of India.This is necessary for maintaining a peaceful environment to attain the true potential of India in global world.
2. India’s space program needs techno-military orientation. Do you agree? Critically examine.
Introduce with what has been India’s traditional approach and the need for military capacity in space in recent times .In next part mention why there is need in todays world to militarise space technology.Then suggest some measures for India to implement.Try to put some negative effects out of this focus on military agngle in space and conclude on positive need of such technology.
As an emerging nation with both vast developmental needs and profound security concerns, India has had to balance many requirements in its rapid advance as a new space power. While success in sending a satellite into orbit around Mars and a rover onto the moon has boosted the Indian space program’s credentials, military planners are increasingly concerned about the vulnerabilities that India’s reliance on satellites has created.This has given voice to make Indian space program focus on military options with changing dynamics in space technology.
India’s space program is several decades old and has been focused primarily on peaceful uses, with a number of scientific and technological applications including telemedicine, tele-education, disaster warning, search and rescue operations, mobile communications, and remote sensing and weather. The wake-up call for India came when China conducted its first anti-satellite (ASAT) missile test in January 2007. The test clearly illustrated the challenges right in India’s own neighbourhood.
Need for Techno-military orientation:
- Secure communication lines: Secure, unbreakable and encrypted communication lines are required for security forces.This it’s necessary to have capacity to defend any harm to these security architecture.
- Neighbourhood: China is already ahead with military space program which puts our security at risk.It has already tested Anti Satellite missile in 2007 and its friendship with Pakistan puts India at risk of use of this missile in future.
- Global position: Change is global realities and developments require us to develop our own.There have been end on informal moratorium on Anti satellite missiles test after 2007, there is lack of global consensus of militarisation of space and with new space force launched by the USA.
- Wartime: During conflicts, foreign support will cease like during Kargil war.In Kargil war India had to rely on Israel for satellite support. Therefore navigation for military purposes is essential for self reliance and national security.
- Missiles: Advanced weapons need satellite support to reach the target.The intercontinental ballistic missiles will require satellite supports to reach at its specific destination.
- Frequency interference: Due to high civilian satellites, separate frequency is needed for forces and support in region like Kashmir.
Steps India can take to give techno military orientation:
- From a space security perspective, it is important for India to evolve a mechanism for the generation of space situational awareness (SSA). Owing to the expense of such system, it is important for India to take initiative for the creation of a multilateral SSA mechanism.
- For establishing a strategic space program, India needs to develop various counter-space capabilities like electromagnetic pulse systems, lasers, jamming techniques and cyber options.
- In addition, satellite-hardening technologies and space debris removal techniques are required to be mastered, too.
- Spaceplanes, satellite swarms and launch-on-demand services are required for network-centric warfare.
- India should also develop the ability for the human spacecraft to move from one orbit to another.
- New quantum-based communications systems and cells for studying space weather forecasting are the requirements of the present and the future.
- Lastly, if India is ‘dreaming big’ then it has to also ‘think big’ to make its space security agenda more inclusive and an important constituent to this could be an establishment of Indian Space Force.
Effects of militarising the space by India :
- Outer space conflicts: Conflicts on land will spread to outer space.The hitherto conflicts between India and China may assume a space dimension.This will threaten not only infrastructure of both the nations but will affect all the countries
- Target: India has used its space program mainly for development of the nation and to lift people out of poverty.But with focus on militarisation it could loose focus on socioeconomic goals which will be harmful in longterm.
- Competition: It will lead to competition and all major countries will start competing with each other.
India has tested its Anti-Satellite (ASAT) missile in mission Shakti and also created the Defence Space Agency for better coordination in military regarding space technology.This highlights India’s preparedness in this domain.This preparedness also becomes necessary due to potential space wars in future and growing space exploration.Therefore India needs to focus on making advances in techno military orientation for safety of India’s space assets and preparing for any future hazards arising out of space wars.
3. Identify the types of linkages between terrorism and organised crime. Cite examples in the Indian context. Which factors have contributed to these linkages? Discuss.
Introduce with definitions of of organised crime and terrorism.In next part cite examples from Indian context of linkages between terrorism and organised crime.In next part write what factors leads to this linkage.In way forward write some practical solutions to deal with this problem.
Organised crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralised enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.While terrorism is a Violent, criminal acts committed by individuals and/or groups who are inspired by, or associated with, designated foreign terrorist organisations or nations (state-sponsored).
Nexus between organised crime and terrorism
- Finance :Terrorist groups need arms and money to fight against security forces. The organised criminals and terrorist groups become clients of each other. Organised criminals groups smuggle arms, drugs, cattle, humans to generate money for terrorist groups.
- Common Agenda : Terrorist groups always try to destabilise the country and bring down the morale of security forces. When the terrorist groups are unable to confront the security forces directly, they turn towards organised criminals. Thus organised criminals indirectly help these terrorist groups.
- Communication system :Organised criminal groups generally establish a strong communication network. These organised groups act as eyes and ears of the terrorist groups.
- Geography :Terrorist organisations in India, especially in the northeast, mobilise funds by becoming couriers of illegal drugs and arms and at times even human beings from one point to another within the country.
- Terrorists are always in need of money. As they fail to mobilise large amounts of money, they take the help of organised criminals to exchange counterfeit currency with arms.
- Man power: Organised crime provides man power to terrorist organisation through human trafficking. Ex: Organised crime traffics humans and provides them to LeT, AL-Qaeda etc.
- Security: Terrorists provide protection to OC in exchange for protection money. Ex: Dawood provided security by LeT in exchange for protection money.
Factors contributing to their linkage
- Both are realising the complementary nature of each other in achieving their goals.
- They have a common enemy in national governments and the rule of law.
- Historically, the end of the cold war ended financial support to many terrorist organisations that led terrorist organisations to link themselves with organised crime for financial support.
- Increased sophistication in money laundering as corporates engage in tax evasion that helps in the continuous money supply.
- Issues of misgovernance and lack of governance.This creates lack of trust in government and corrupt the administration.
- The inequalities existing in society are manipulated by these organisations to grow their base.This has been seen in Kashmir and in less developed states where due to less earning opportunities and glaring inequality,organised crime seems a better option to youths.
- Globalisation has its side effects through the communication revolution and its anonymity. The cyberspace and dark web are increasingly being used to coordinate.
- The outstanding geopolitical issues that are sought to be solved by governments through immoral activities like terrorism and crime penetration.
- The nexus that is thriving due to complementary nature must be broken down so that it will be easier to tackle them separately.
- There is a need for fine-tuning of the criminal investigation so as to find and establish links of a crime syndicate with terrorism.
- Improving coordination and establishing specialised units to investigate. The specialised unit must have competent human resources, finances, technical expertise and appropriate legal backing to work in an unhindered manner.
- The necessity of legal backing stems from the existence of numerous stakeholders such as state police, border security, financial sector, special units such as narcotics departments.
- The interstate coordination is necessary and an organisation in the lines of the National Counter Terrorism Centre to tackle the nexus. It will help in national and international coordination.
- India must continue to engage the international space for better policy, concerted actions against state-sponsored terrorism, and terrorist financing.
- The international cooperation can stem from UNSC resolutions and other institutional mechanisms such as FATF.