In News: The Centre has decided to mark Hyderabad State Liberation Day on September 17.
- The Telangana Government has decided to observe September 17 as Telangana National Unity Day.
History and Significance:
- On September 17, 1948, more than one year after India got Independence, the erstwhile state of Hyderabad, comprising the entire state of Telangana and some districts in Maharashtra and Karnataka, got liberated from the Nizam rule.
- This was possible due to the swift and timely action of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel under Operation Polo.
- The struggles of the people of erstwhile Hyderabad state against colonialism, feudalism and autocracy are a symbol of national integration.
- The Telangana rebellion was started by a group of peasants in late 1945, against the prevalent jagirdari system where power to collect revenue and govern certain landholdings was installed in certain officers.
- Represented by the Comrades Association, who were affiliated with the Communist Party of India, the rebellion turned violent and clashed with the Razakars, a militia headed by Kasim Rizvi.
- In 1945 Nizam of Hyderabad put forward multiple conditions to join India — all of which were unacceptable to the Indian state
- In the meantime, Kasim Rizvi and his Razakars became increasingly dominating, difficult to ignore presence in Hyderabad.
- He influenced all major decisions the Nizam undertook and installed his chosen men in the government.
- In order to ensure that Hyderabad’s already deteriorating law and order condition did not worsen further, India signed the Standstill Agreement with Hyderabad, stating that all administrative agreements that were in place between the Nizam and the British Crown would continue between the Nizam and India.
- The signing of the Standstill Agreement, however, ensured peace for only about a year.
- Almost instantly, Hyderabad started violating the conditions, simultaneously the violent activities of the Razakars increased, creating an atmosphere of anarchy in the state.
- As a last resort, India launched ‘Operation Polo’ in September 1948 and defeated the rebel forces within five days to make Hyderabad an integral part of India.
Source: The Indian Express