Day 30 – Q.2 Analyze the impact of rapid population growth on poverty and development in India. What are the potential solutions to address these challenges?

  • IASbaba
  • December 27, 2022
  • 0
GS 1, Indian Society, TLP-UPSC Mains Answer Writing
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Analyze the impact of rapid population growth on poverty and development in India. What are the potential solutions to address these challenges?

भारत में गरीबी और विकास पर तीव्र जनसंख्या वृद्धि के प्रभाव का विश्लेषण कीजिए। इन चुनौतियों का समाधान करने के लिए संभावित समाधान क्या हैं?

Approach –

A simple straightforward question where candidates need to write about impact of rapid population growth on poverty and development in India,In second part of answer write potential solutions to address these challenges .

Introduction –

High population growth will have  several repercussions like unemployment, poverty, poor standards of living, a larger gap between the rich and the poor, lesser resources, greater exploitation of natural resources.It will have adverse effect on development .

Body –

Impact of  Rapid population on poverty –

  • Increase in the population results in more family expenses.It leads to rise in unemployment pushing family into vicious cycle of poverty.
  • At one end high population growth rate is one of major reasons of poverty in India.
  • High population below poverty line add to high level of illiteracy, poor health care facilities and poor access to financial resources.
  • Hence high population growth affects the per capita income and makes per capita income even lower.
  • Whereas on the other side for poor, one more child means two more hands to work and earn for livelihood of family, and this particular reason make poverty a strong cause for growing population.
  • lack of money and proper awareness or education about contraceptive methods is among major causes of population increase in India due to poverty.
  • It leads to poor lifestyle and high mortality, particularly among children, which keeps the fertility rates high, due to uncertainty, further increasing the population upwards.
  • It leads to rise in unemployment pushing family into vicious cycle of poverty.
  • Increased number of people in agricultural families results in decreased portion of divided land among the family members causing lower incomes.

Impact of population on development –

  • Water shortages-Already up to 40% of the world’s population face water scarcity and the risk of drought. A growing population will put pressure on scarce water supplies and this is a factor behind many minor and major conflicts with countries having to find ways around the shortage of water.
  • If this is not addressed soon, the Indian population may become a liability.
  • Generating unsustainable waste-We are currently generating non-biodegradable rubbish that we are struggling to process. It tends to end in landfill, causing methane emissions and other toxic problems.
  • Problem of Unemployment-Large size of population results in large army of labour force. But due to shortage of capital resources it becomes difficult to provide gainful employment to the entire working population.
  • Disguised unemployment in rural areas and open unemployment in urban areas are the normal features of an under developed country like India.
  • Pressure on Environment-Population explosion leads to environmental degradation. Higher birth rate brings more pollution, more toxic wastes and damage to biosphere. Briefly speaking, population explosion hinders the economic development.
  • Education-The low income of large family dose not afford to provide education to their children. Which results into creating a problem of illiteracy and again none awareness among the class.
  • Pressure on food, clothing & housing-A country with fast growing population has to face a serious problem of scarcity of necessary food, minimum clothing & proper housing facilities, which are basic needs of human life. Thus, it affects the life style and results slum areas, starvation etc.
  • It is estimated that India is currently producing 25 million job seekers but provides jobs to only 7 million.

Potential solutions to address these challenges –

  • A population can be an asset if the youth of the country has access to education, skill development, increased employment opportunities, etc.however, currently, India faces a very high unemployment rate.
  • The current government is bearing the burden of providing the access to clean drinking water, houses, cooking fuel, electricity, and healthcare to the whole of the Indian population and is aiming to create a $5trillion economy.Also, India’s landmass is only 35-40% of China’s landmass.
  • The government needs to play a pivotal role and invest in education, health and creating economic opportunities for young people, which would help us harness demographic dividend.
  • This calls for forward-looking policies incorporating population dynamics, education and skills, healthcare, gender sensitivity, and providing rights and choices to the younger generation.
  • India needs to invest more in children and adolescents, particularly in nutrition and learning during early childhood.
  • India needs to increase female workforce participation in the economy.
  • It is, therefore, important to understand that in order to have a better future for all on a healthy planet, attainment of the SDGs is critical.
  • Providing adequate education and training to the young population would make them productive, effective and competent, thereby making them key contributors to economic growth.


Efforts to combat the ‘vicious circle’ of poverty, rising population growth and environmental degradation are said to require multidisciplinary policies in all sectors.These policies need to be carefully established taking account of the need to achieving sustainable development if the resourced that are available for future generations are to be preserved .

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