Science and Technology
Context: Recently, the researchers have said that India’s first indigenously developed Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR)-T Cell T therapy for specific types of cancer.
About CART-T cell therapy:
- Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies represent a quantum leap in the sophistication of cancer treatment.
- Unlike chemotherapy or immunotherapy, which require mass-produced injectable or oral medication, CAR T-cell therapies use a patient’s own cells.
- They are modified in the laboratory to activate T-cells, a component of immune cells, to attack tumors.
- These modified cells are then infused back into the patient’s bloodstream after conditioning them to multiply more effectively.
How does the therapy work?
- In CAR T-cell therapy, the patient’s blood is drawn to harvest T-cells which are immune cells that play a major role in destroying tumor cells.
- Researchers modify these cells in the laboratory so that they express specific proteins on their surface, known as chimeric antigen receptors (CAR).
- They have an affinity for proteins on the surface of tumor cells.
- This modification in the cellular structure allows CAR T-cells to effectively bind to the tumor and destroy it.
- The final step in the tumor’s destruction involves its clearance by the patient’s immune system.
Source: The Hindu
Previous Year Questions
Q.1) Which one of the following statements best describes the role of B cells and T cells in the human body? (2022)
- They protect the environmental allergens. body
- They alleviate the body’s pain and inflammation.
- They act as immunosuppressants in the body.
- They protect the body from the diseases caused by pathogens.
Q.2) With reference to recent developments regarding ‘Recombinant vector Vaccines’, consider the following statements:
- Genetic engineering is applied in the development of these vaccines.
- Bacteria and viruses are used as vectors.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (2021)
- 1 only
- 2 only
- Both 1 and 2
- Neither 1 nor 2
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