IASbaba's Think and Learn-Mains 2015, Mains Examination, Think and Learn-2015, UPSC Mains- Think and Learn-2015
Synopsis and Review-Think and Learn [Day 4]
1) With great skill and masterful diplomacy and using both persuasion and pressure, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel succeeded in integrating the hundreds of princely states with the Indian Union. Discuss. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
This is a fairly simple question. Start off with a small historical background with the Mountbatten Plan and the Indian Independence Act, 1947. Mention the three choices that the princely states got, and then explain how Sardar Patel and V.P.Menon.
Then give examples and do mention the special cases – Junagadh, Travancore, Hyderabad and Kashmir. This should be another 100 words.
Since this is a very simple question, and since this wouldn’t deviate much, we see there is no need of a separate Model Answer.
So, the Top Answer/Model Answer is written by Manis Srivastava (Mainly because he included V.P.Menon into the answer, which means that he knows his history well :D)
A) British India was divided in into British India Provinces and Princely State Small & Large state ruled by Princes under control of British Supremacy.In India Independence Act, 1947 it was described that Pricely State were free to join India or Pakistan dominion and it was dependent on these states rulers not upon peoples.
It was a big challenge for India to integrate these state. Sardhar Vallabhbhai Patel(Home Minister) and V P Menon played a historic role in it.
1) Sardar Patel inspired them at the name of patriotism towards motherland and gave them assurance for security, communication & external affairs. Many princely state signed “Instrument of accession”.
2) Junagadh, Manipur, Hyderabad, Kashmir accession was difficult one but Sardar Patel diplomacy made it possible in easy way.
a) The Junagadh issue was resolved after plebiscite.
b) The Hyderabad was integrated with help of army.
c) Manipur king signed “Instrument of accession” with assurance that internal autonomy of manipur will be maintained.
d) Kashmir joined India with some conditions which is mentioned in Article 370.
Due to visionary idea & masterful diplomacy of Sardar Patel, Princely state became part of India and for his strong role in accession of princely state, He is knows as Iron Man of India.
2) Write a note on the legal initiatives taken to prohibit manual scavenging in recent times. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
Even though the question specifically asks for “legal initiatives”, and there is only one recent Bill, it is prudent if we list out sociological causes, such as castes, untouchability and how people’s mindset should change also.
Then, do give the salient features of the 1993 and the 2013 Bill. This much should fetch you good marks.
The Top/Model answer is written by Subash Tadala, but even his answer is incomplete, but he has given more points than the rest. Do complement his answer with our points too for a complete answer –
A) Manual scavenging which is a inhuman practice, in the 21st century must be eliminated through initiatives by society and state in particular. Some of the legal initiatives are:
a)Policy: Passing of the Prohibition of employment of Manual scavengers and their rehabilitation act,2012 by the parliament itself.
b)Judicial Support : In 2014, Supreme court itself gave the judgement that manual scavenging have to be ended and directed the centre & states to rehabilitate the scavengers with a focus on dalits empowerment.
c)Technological way: Though not purely a legal one, installation of bio-digestors at public places and especially in the railways act as a directive towards the required outcome.
e)Swachh Bharat : These scheme has a provision to construct the flush toilets and penalize the dry toilet pit construction which may act as a enhancer to limit scavengers employment
Other initiatives: The state support to form the unions like Safai Karmachari Andolan, answering the employment problems of the scheduled castes who are the main scavengers, respecting the human rights of scavengers through civil society can make societ and state sensitive to eliminate this in-human practice if not immediately, but in a near future less than five years.
3) GST is being hailed as the biggest tax reform measure since independence. Analyse the benefits that can incur to the Indian economy with its introduction. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
This is a question which has been in the newspapers for a long time, and is fairly important. And since this question is very very broad and has a variety of points, IAS-Baba thinks that it needs to give a Model Answer to it.
Do remember that even our Answer is not perfect, because no one can write all the existing points within 200 words, but we did give a try.
The Model IAS-Baba Answer
A) Goods and services tax (GST) is an indirect tax which is based on the principle of VAT which aims to replace all the indirect taxes on goods and services like state tax, entertainment tax etc.
The benefits that GST can have on our economy are:
a) Tax Reforms: It will broaden the tax base along with increased compliance, tax evasion will be difficult. It eliminates cascading burden of multiple taxation.
b) GDP Improvement: This will increase tax to GDP ratio of the government which dipped to as low as 10 percent in the last fiscal year.
c) Uniformity: It will integrate indirect taxation system across the states and facilitate common market across states. It will also do away with entry tax thereby giving boost to trade between the states.
d) Transparency: GST is expected to build a transparent and corruption free tax administration. It will give boost to entrepreneurship by reducing confusion regarding taxes, thus leading to more investment.
e) Inflation Control: Inflation will be brought down since the prices of the goods and services will be reduced because of a uniform tax rate.
f) Quality Improvement: It will promote specialization because total tax liability remains same irrespective of number of production-distribution stages.
All these benefits of GST make it a more desirable reform needed by the country in the immediate future. Addressing the concerns and demands of states on merit basis will be an important breakthrough in its success.
And the Top Answer goes to Pushkal, for writing a very short yet compact answer. This was a very effective one –
Goods and Services Tax(GST) is an indirect tax that will subsume most of the indirect taxes. GST was first recommended by Kelkar task force in 2004. The protagonists of GST term it as the biggest tax reform after independence. The main points in their support are:
1) It will remove the Cascading Effect- multiple tax deduction at various points of sales- in the system.
2) Central Sales Tax applies only for inter-state commerce and not for inter-state transport. So, big corporates set up their warehouses inthe destination state to avoid the inter-state commerce tax. Under new regime, an Integrated GST (IGST) would be imposed by center regardless of transport or commerce.This will prevent Warehousing Obsession that harms the MSMEs.
3) There will be a uniform tax rate.
4) Exports will be Zero Rated that will boost our exports.
5) Tax evasion will be reduced to a larger extent, fiscal deficit will be reduced, increase in GDP.
So, analyzing the above benefits, there is no doubt that GST will have a positive impact on our economy.