Q.1) Discuss the factors responsible for long term climate change. What evidences do we have that support current global warming. Explain.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Shiuli
Ans) Climate change is defined as the alteration of weather, oceans, ecosystems, society etc due to a number of natural and man-made factors which are explained below:
(i) Accelerated production of GHGs over the past century due to burning of fossil fuels, clearing forests, fertilizing crops, storing waste in landfills, raising livestock etc
(ii) Alteration of the albedo effect of earth by activities such as agriculture and road construction which causes local warming or cooling
(iii) Emission of aerosols which can act as an absorbent or reflecting surface for sun’s rays
(i) Increasing instances of solar activities such as sun flares and sunspots
(ii) Natural disasters like volcanic eruptions and natural forest fires which release black carbon
(iii) Wobbling of the earth on its axis which may trigger an ice age
Evidences to support current global warming –
An average rise of 0.6 deg C (IPCC) in global temperatures over the last century
Rising sea-levels which threatens coastal communities and ecosystems
Alteration in the pattern and amount of rainfall
Changing geographic locations of plants and animals e.g. shift of the habitat of mosquitoes northwards
Increased frequency and duration of extreme weather events such as heat waves, droughts, floods etc.
Q.2) Tropical cyclones are a recurrent climatic phenomena in India. Discuss the origin and movement of tropical cyclones that originate in the Bay of Bengal.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Shiuli
Ans) India’s long coastline experiences 10% of the world’s cyclones, with the majority (65%) of the cyclones originating in the Bay of Bengal. Tropical cyclones are secondary atmospheric circulations which primarily act as heat exchange mechanism.
After 21st of March, with the northward shift of the ITCZ, low pressure zones are created over Bay of Bengal. Also, the continental landmass acts as a heat sink zone which in turn heats up the Bay of
The winds prevailing over Bay of Bengal are weaker than the winds over Arabian Sea (presence of mountains east of Africa) and hence transfer of warm water is not transported away
The temperature over Bay of Bengal rises upto 27 deg C and combined with low pressure and abundant humidity, cyclonic conditions are created
Additionally, low pressure zones from China also enter the
BoB alongwith the Easterlies
Under the influence of Coriolis forces, tropical cyclones in the Northern Hemisphere rotate anticlockwise
The Easterlies direct the cyclones towards India’s eastern coast
They move at speeds of about 15-25 km/hr and cover a distance of 300-500 km a day
At about 20 deg latitude, they move westwards, then polewards between 20-25 deg latitudes and at 25-30 deg latitudes, they move in a northeasterly direction and later turn eastwards.
Q.3) Do you agree with the argument that Swadeshi Movement was the best expression of extremist politics? Bring out the factors and nature of mass participation in the movement.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – DrAB
Q.5) Even after seven decades of independence, the electoral political discourse in India remains a complex equation of caste, religion and language. Do you agree with this assessment of the current political landscape in India? Critically examine.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Vardan Maheshwari
Ans) It is a bitter truth that even after 70 years of independence, the electoral politics of India is still fuelled by the rhetorics of caste, religion and language.
-The points which prove this fact in the current political landscape are:
a)Recently the issue of beef ban was highly politicized by leaders to target their vote-banks.
b)Announcement of leaders to give benefits of reservation of particular community during run-up to elections.
c)The existence of various regional parties in India which have their political support due to particular communities and religion.
d)Due to illiteracy, especially in rural areas, the caste or religion still forms a major factor for political support.
e)Political Parties distributes tickets to the dominant caste-religion candidates.
-However, due to the increasing literacy and awareness in the urban areas, the effect of these social barriers have diminished to an extent and people have started voting on basis of the efficiency of the candidate.Thus the only solution to diminish these caste barriers is to increase the awareness and literacy among people in rural areas. Also, Election Commission must implement moral code of conduct in a more stricter way so that the anti-social rhetorics of the politicians can be stopped.
Q.6) Local governance in India is characterized by tokenism and surrogate representation in terms of participation of women, voice of the marginalized classes and rights of the Dalits. What do you think are the principal regions behind the state of affairs at the grassroot level? Examine.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Sravan
Ans) The reasons are :
The lack of awareness and education on part of women and other weaker sections.
The patriarchal nature of the society especially in villages don’t allow women to work independently and she is supposed to follow the instructions laid down by his husband and his family.
The constitutional principles of liberty, equality, freedom of expression are not percolated into the society and it is still in the traditionalist mode.
There is huge gap between the rural and urban mindset , and weaker sections are still exploited. So even they got constitutional rights through 73rd amendment act they are still under the shadow of the village heavy weights who are from mostly upper castes.
Bonded labour still is prevalent in many states in rural areas these persons have to act according to whims and fancies of their owner. So the election of panchayat members in reserved seats are mostly decided by their masters.
Many legislators elected from such societies still maintain the feudal mindset and sexist attitude . because of this reason even after holding a responsible position instead of changing the grassroot level discrimination they try to maintain status quo.
But the situation is not so pathetic that it can t be changed. There is a gradual change started in the society. Even in rural areas because of communication revolution, efforts of ngos and efficient administrators we could see some positive difference.
Q.7) Malnutrition in Indian children has reached alarming proportions. In fact, even well fed children suffer from chronic undernourishment due to severe lack of hygiene and sanitation. In light of this statement, examine the need and desirable impacts of Swachha Bharat Abhiyan.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – The Rock
Ans) As per National Family Health Survey , India with less than 20% of global children has over 40% of world’s malnourished children , coupled with high prevalence among disadvantaged sections like tribals , dalits , women and urban poor . This has led to high IMR and MMR , poor physical and mental development , thus causing stunting .
However , even well fed children suffer from chronic undernourishment due to deficiency in balanced diet intake or absorption of vitamins and minerals . This is mainly caused by lack of hygiene and sanitation causing communicable diseases like Malaria , Diarrhoea , etc thus affecting absorption capacity of micro-nutrients .
Thus , Swach Bharat Abhiyan was needed for
Promoting hygience and sanitation in dietary habits and drinking water
Reducing open defecation , which is site for vectors and disease causing micro-organisms
Reducing global burden of diseases and out of pocket expenditure
The desired impacts include
Improvement in IMR and MMR , thus meeting Millennium development goals
Increase Body Mass index , thus physical and mental development
Healthy child can attain education and livelihood opportunities, thus reducing poverty
Thus , Swachh Bharat Abhiyan will help in promoting preventive health care , thus providing equitable opportunities to every child to develop their true potential.