Q.1) Civil society and voluntary sector occupy a prominent place in the democratic landscape of India. Their contribution in helping the state reaching out to the poor and giving voice to the common citizens can’t be overstated. However, rule of law must govern their functioning in matters of financing and objectives. In light of the controversy and debates surrounding the voluntary sector, analyse the statements given above.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Cosviny
Ans) Civil society and voluntary sector offers an alternative , innovative and people-centric and people participation approach to development comprising service delivery, advocacy and empowerment.
Recently, this sector alleged to be taking fund from government for leading a luxurious life to few. NGO’s blamed for running as frontal face for organisations which have ulterior motive specifically ,those getting foreign funding. Other problems attached are lack of transparency, tax evasion, misappropriation of funds, and lack of a regulatory mechanism.
In this background , government resorted to action and cancelled the permissions of 9000 NGO’s under FCRA. Thus, this has became larger debate of rule of law and governing of voluntary sector considering following points:-
1. Government is ultimately responsible to maintain law and order and financial security. The manipulated protests of development projects and foreign funding linkages revealed by IB.
A government response is necessary.
2. Due to lack of substantive evidence, lack of proper guidelines for regulation and absence of any credit rating survey of such NGO’s could not justify Government prompt action of registration cancellation.
3. The large scale action of gagging may discourage and stop functioning of many voluntary organisation which are doing wonderful jobs of people welfare. The right of civil society of free and fearless working should find space in government regulatory framework.
The need of the hour is to frame elaborated guidelines under National policy of Voluntary sector and establishment of National Accreditation council of India with representation of all stakeholders.
Q.2) Although the unpredictable monsoon often exacerbates the agrarian distress, the reasons more fundamental to the problems of agricultural sector lie in the structural and institutional factors. All this is compounded by a political class for which the rural farmers matters the most only during elections. Critically examine.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Sepoy No 1446
Ans) 1. NGO and VO need to work within existing framework. There are rules regarding financing (FERA act), account maintenance, periodic reporting etc which must be fulfilled to act hassle free. Nevertheless despite taking all precautions and fulfilling all legal,legislative and fiscal requirements the obstruction by state in functioning of NGOs are not a remote possibility. Hence there is a need to develop understanding b/w these two. All claims must be processed in spirit of law.At the same time a clear framework needs to be provided to different type of NGOs.This will bring clarity of expectations.
2. Monsoon is biggest friend and foe for Indian farmers. But more than that the structural and institutional inadequacy in farm sector can be held responsible for penury of Indian farmers. Both these factors are human made and unlike monsoon they can be turned in favor to Indian farmers.The responsibility for same lies majorily on Political willpower. That in turn depends on the strength of client groups being served. Farmers as a community are marginalized in this process,being used as a vote bank and theme of political agenda without any major actions. This way poor politics perpetuates the agrarian distress.
Few examples include:
-MSP regime favours few particular crops, creates market distortion. As a results oversupply of MSP crops reduce its price thus reducing the potential benefits that farmers could have got.A distortion should be replaced by a balance in MSP regime which is again a legislative prerogative.
-Lack of sufficient credit facilities
-Insurance schemes exist but implementation is farce, political interest can Change this scenario but no significant action so far.
-Farm subsidies, especially urea subsidy under new NPS scheme actually promotes excessive use of urea
-Farmer suicide is a matter which needs active political intervention by way of psychiatric help and clinical support. This particular aspects is less developed.
-Requisite infrastructure missing, cold storages,freezer vans need to be promoted. MPs under MPLAD scheme can direct District collectors to undertake such works on priority.
-The demand for a uniform agricultural market is still in doldrum. This can be a great help for farmers as well as for country (uniform price, controlled inflation)
All these reforms need active politics and a sustained interest by political leaders. Same is missing.
Q.3) Perhaps, nothing is more fundamental in a democracy than a person’s right to vote. However, in India, large constituencies of voters that include the NRIs and domestic migrant labourers have been denied of this right due to practical difficulties in ensuring their participation in the democratic exercise. How do you view this issue? Is there a way out to address this fundamental problem? Discuss.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Another Brick In The Wall
Ans) Political justice is an important part of Indian democracy and the right to vote has been enshrined as a constitutional right under article 326. Though the right to vote extends it to all citizens but large scale migration internally and externally has meant this right to not accessible to many.
NRIs and migrant labours in search of better employment opportunities have migrated outside their constituencies where they have not been able to vote. Also traveling to their homes exclusively for voting does not seems economical or desirable.
To solve this problem Election Commision of India has come up with a number of innovative methods which are already available to military personnel and can be possibly extended to NRIs and migrant labours. Some of them are:-
1) Proxy voting i.e allowing a person to vote in name of another.
2) e-Voting i.e. using internet
3) postal method i.e. transferring votes via posts
But still a lot of deliberations need to be done as each one of the above have some pertinent issues to them. Like proxy voting reveals secrecy, e-voting is vulnerable to hacking and postal method is time consuming. The Indian government must take a decision quickly as this population constitutes a large chunk and has the potential to totally change electoral results.