SYNOPSIS: IASbaba’s TLP – 2018: UPSC Mains General
Studies Questions [20th December 2017]- Day 23
Q.1) Bharatanatyam is one of the most evolved art form that relates to all the aspects of human existence: body, psyche and the soul. Comment.
According to the Hindu tradition the name of the dance form was derived by joining two words, ‘Bharata’ and Natyam’ where ‘Natyam in Sanskrit means dance and ‘Bharata’ is a mnemonic comprising ‘bha’, ‘ra’ and ‘ta’ which respectively means ‘bhava’ that is emotion and feelings; ‘raga’ that is melody; and ‘tala’ that is rhythm. Thus, traditionally the word refers to a dance form where bhava, raga and tala are expressed. The theoretical base of this dance form, which is also referred as Sadir, trace back to ancient Indian theatrologist and musicologist, Bharata Muni’s Sanskrit Hindu text on the performing arts called ‘Natya Shastra’. The text’s first complete version was presumably completed between 200 BCE to 200 CE, however such timeframe also varies between 500 BCE and 500 CE.
Where you can find the evidence of Bharatanatyam:
Many ancient Hindu temples are embellished with sculptures of Lord Shiva in Bharatanatyam dance poses. The eastern gopuram of the 12th century Thillai Natarajan Temple, Chidambaram, of Tamil Nadu dedicated to Lord Shiva bears sculptures depicting 108 poses of Bharatanatyam, referred as karanas in ‘Natya Shastra’, that are intricately carved in small rectangular panels
What all aspects a performer should know while performing Bharatanatyam:
Bharatanatyam is a huge discipline that includes different skills apart from steps and body understanding, which has Abhinaya in it; person who performs need to understand Carnatic music, nattuvangam, ancient languages, mythology, mudra and literature. It is a classical art that not only gives us an entertainment and joy of life, but also carries a mental and spiritual education that serves the evolution of human consciousness. Bharatanatyam is one of the most evolved art form that relates to all the aspects of human existence: body, psyche and the soul.
Let us start with the physical aspect. It is related to Nritta that means an abstract form. As we know it is a combination of various adavus (dance units) with the limited amount of Nritta hastas (hand gestures). All that serves to express pure joy and beauty. Performer need to focus an attention on the arai mandi (half bent knees position) that is the basic of Bharatanatyam, and in Bharatanatyam that the bent knees position, striking the floor plus wormed up body stimulate certain functions in the spinal cord. It influences us in a similar way as some of Yoga asanas. As a result the consciousness of a dancer easily becomes focused and is being elevated slowly on a higher level.
Abhinaya or nritya is related to human psyche. It is an “expressional” aspect of dance. Its instruments are: the language of gestures, movements of eyes, head, neck and facial expression. Here different mythological stories are being portrayed through dance compositions like Shabdam, Varnam and Padams. The essence of Abhinaya is the theory of Bhava and Rasa (mood or feelings), that is the basic of Indian aesthetic.
Soul: Behind the world of feelings and moods rests the “seer”, from which all this originated and where all comes back. The dancer created an illusion on stage and at the end, after the firework of a Thillana (concluding dance item) withdraws it all in Mangalam (final prayer). An artist entertains, but also is a vehicle of knowledge and wisdom.
Famous personalities in Bharatanatyam:
The four Nattuvanars namely Ponaiyah, Vadivelu, Sivanandam and Chinnaiya who are renowned as Tanjaore Bandhu and who thrived in the Durbar of Maratha ruler, Sarfoji-II from 1798 to 1832 shaped up the modern day Bharatanatyam. The three aspects, body, psyche and soul flow together into the stream of the performance. Every movement has the essence of those three as “Natyasastra” describes it.
Best Answer: optimistic
2. Though music transcends language, culture and time, and though notes are the same, Indian music is unique because it is evolved, sophisticated and melodies are defined. Elucidate.
- A small introduction on how music transcends language, culture and time.
- How Indian music is unique must be explained.
- This can be done by describing its evolution.
Music transcends language, culture and time. The melodies from across the world be it in any language generates same kind of feelings of love and emotions. However, uniqueness of Indian music lies in its distinctiveness and sophistication which is result of its long history of evolution.
Indian music has a very long, unbroken tradition and is an accumulated heritage of centuries. It is believed that sage Narada introduced the art of music to the earth.
During the late Vedic period, a form of music called ‘Samgana’ was prevalent which involved chanting of verses set to musical patterns.
During 2nd-7th centuries A.D. a form of music called ‘Prabandh Sangeet’, became very popular. This form gave way to a simpler form called ‘dhruvapad’, which used Hindi as the medium. The Gupta Period is considered as the golden era in the development of Indian music.
Several genres of singing were introduced in the Indian Music, which include the ‘dhrupad’ and ‘khayal’.
Gradually two different styles of classical music emerged in India, the ‘Hindustani Style’ in the north and the ‘Carnatic Style’ in the South, both based on the music traditions laid down in Bharata’s ‘Natya Shastra’.
- Indian classical music focusses on melody created using a sequence of notes. Different melodies are constructed using the rules of different ragas.
- Indian classical music has roots in spirituality and has a close association with nature. Ragas have specific times of day or seasons associated with them.
- Given the improvisation allowed and the spiritual link (Indian music in its classical form is revered not only because it is entertaining but also spiritual), Indian music is very sophisticated.
Thus, as described above it took several centuries for music to evolve from purely ritualistic form to its modern form, making it unique, defined and sophisticated.
In this light the government and civilians need to ensure that the tradition of gharans is kept alive form one generation to next.
Best answer: Pallavi Chauhan
3. With time, Indian classical paintings have evolved to become a sort of blend of the various traditions influencing them. Illustrate.
- You can start by writing about Indian classical painting tradition
- Write about various traditions influencing Painting in India
- Write diverse arguments along with examples
The Indian subcontinent is vast, and most urban centres fostered a school of painting. These schools flourished under the patronage of royal and princely patrons and some under tribal and folk tradition.Recording the passions, pastimes, religious observances and courtly pomp and ceremony,which underpin the diversity and creative genius of the subcontinent.
The range of subject matter influencing Indian classical painting is enormous. There are a number of recurring themes, however, which should be highlighted.
Scenes of hunt, music and harem ambiences are relatively common.Mughal and Rajput paintings offer many examples of princely leisure. The Mughals, particularly under Jahangir, favoured portraits of animals and flowers which are among the greatest achievements of that school. Depictions of a variety of musical modes (ragamala) arranged in series of dozens of paintings, or of the months of the year (bharamasa) are also preferred subjects of the Rajput and Pahari schools.
Illustrations of Hindu myths, however, are common in Hindu courts of the Pahari region and, of course, in South India. Indian masters also excelled in humorous and grotesque subjects, such as assemblies of drunken hermits, emaciated animals or portraits of deformed courtiers, often full of character and spirit.
Arguments and Examples
- Early settlers have painted world oldest painting in Paleolithic sites such as Bhimbetka. It reflects the life style of people of that time, hunters and gatherers.
- Then from the time of urbanization phase beautiful mural and fresco painting has shaped the classical painting. Ex- painting of Ajanta and Ellora caves.
- With arriving of Mughals era of miniature painting kick starts. Jahangir himself was critically acclaimed painter.
- Declining Mughal period gives way to fusion between Mughal painting with that of Rajput and hilly painting. Schools like Kangra, Bahsoli worth mentioning.
- European advents led painters to adopt techniques like picturesque, perspective, life size painting, and oil painting. Raja ravi Varma has mastered the art of oil painting.
- Other painting like kalighat painting, worli paintings, madhubani painting etc to played major role in shaping the classical painting.
- Painting also became a means to arouse nationalism, Abinindranath tagore has painted the BharatMata.
Thus it can be seen that painting over the time blend in itself tradition of the time of popular culture. Indian classical painting in current form speaks about the history and tradition of India’s rich heritage.
Best Answer: LeGo La La
4. What is National Anti-profiteering Authority? What is its mandate? Also examine its need in post GST India.
- Introduction- Define what is National Anti-profiteering Authority.
- Write what is its mandate in first part and need for NAA in post GST India.
National Anti-profiteering Authority is an apex body which is mandated to ensure that the benefits of the reduction in GST rates on goods or services are passed on to the ultimate consumers by way of a reduction in prices.
Just for additional information: It is headed by Secretary level officer to GOI and 4 technical members from state and/or Center.
Points to be covered:
- Anti-profiteering measures.
- Pass reduction benefits to consumers.
- Consumer welfare fund.
- Cancellation of registration.
Explain each point for a line or two.
Need for NAA in post GST India.
- Profiteering: Firms in order to derive quick profits may not pass on benefits to consumers. Ex: One fast food MNC chain had not passed on reduction benefit to consumers.
- GST: Without passing, the objectives of reducing GST won’t be fulfilled.
- Past experiences: Have shown the benefits have not been passed on.
- Rate changes: There are provisions for revision of rates even further.
Protecting the interests of both consumers and Business houses is the responsibility of government. Even if one is compromised then economic prosperity is compromised in long run. Thus constitution of the NAA shall bolster confidence of consumers as they reap the benefits of the recent reduction in GST rates, in particular, and of GST, in general.
Best answer: Aditi
5. Examine the factors that prompted recapitalisation of public sector banks. Will it be able to revive India’s banking sector? Critically analyse?
The question has got two parts in first part you need to write why this step is taken and in second part you need to write whether it will revive banking sector.
In introduction, mention what is recapitalization.
Recapitalisation program of 2017: (This much detail is not required. Given only for your information.)
There are three things that will happen:
- Through budgetary allocations, the government will buy Rs.18,000 cr. worth shares of Public Sector Banks
- And then, Public Sector Banks will need to go raise Rs. 58,000 cr. from the market
- The government will issue a vaguely worded thing called “Bank Recapitalization Bonds” for Rs. 135,000 cr. which will be used to buy more shares in Public Sector Banks.
The time frame: 2 years.
The government will buy Rs. 153,000 cr. worth shares in banks. They will raise 58,000 cr. themselves, so there’s a 75-25 government-private infusion of new money into banks.
Factors that prompted recapitalization of Public Sector Banks:
There are two basic reasons –
- Towering NPAs in the bank: A loan becomes a non-performing asset when the borrower defaults on the repayment for more than nine months. When a bank writes off NPAs, its capital is likely to be eroded and limits its ability to lend further. Since amount of NPAs had increased in the recent time, the Government decided to recapitalize.
- To push India’s Growth: In order to promote growth lending in the market is very important. Banks won’t be able to lend if they don’t have enough money.
Several other reasons are:
- To confirm to BASEL III norms and maintain Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR)
- To solve the problem of twin balance sheet
- To bail out some indebted corporate
Revival of India’s Banking Sector:
It is a very good step to boost Indian economy and revive Indian banking sector but there are several issues associated with it.
- It is a short term measure to cure the symptom but it is not a permanent solution. Government can’t keep on feeding money in the market.
- It won’t ensure a proper mechanism to recover bad loans.
- This will create a bad example infront of corporate who are paying loans on time as bad loans are bailed out and they are getting no positive incentive.
- Banks are facing NPAs over 10 lakh crore so just 2.11 lakh crore is a minuscule entity as compared to that.
Note: People have mentioned that it will create inflation in the market, it will have load on exchequer etc. But the question specifically asks whether it will be able to revive the banking sector or not. So try to write the points which are in sync with the question. If an open ended question is asked on the effects of recapitalization than all other points can be mentioned.
Best Answer: Akash