Press Information Bureau (PIB) IAS UPSC – 30th July to 3rd Aug – 2019
Passage of Triple Talaq Bill
- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
- Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes)
The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2019, better known as the Triple Talaq Bill, was passed in the Rajya Sabha. ‘Triple Talaq’ or ‘Oral talaq’ is a procedure of divorce mentioned under the Sharia Law which is a body of the Islamic law. Under this, a husband can divorce his wife by pronouncing ‘Talaq’ thrice.
What is instant triple talaq?
- In the practice of talaq-e-biddat, when a man pronounces talaq thrice in a sitting, or through phone, or writes in a talaq-nama or a text message, the divorce is considered immediate and irrevocable, even if the man later wishes to re-conciliate. However, Women cannot pronounce triple talaq and are required to move a court for getting the divorce under the Sharia Act, 1937.
- There are three forms of talaq (divorce) in Islam: Ahsan, Hasan, and Talaq-e-Biddat (triple or instant talaq). Ahsan and Hasan are revocable but talaq-e-Biddat is irrevocable.
- Thus, since Shariat Act had recognised triple talaq, it was no longer a personal law to remain free of the fetters of the fundamental rights rigour but a statutory law which comes under the ambit of Article 13(1) of the Constitution
- In the Shah Bano case in 1985, the SC granted Shah Bano, a 62-year old woman the right to alimony from her husband.
- But in 1986, the government passed the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act which diluted the positive impact created by the Shah Bano case.
- In 2001, in the Danial Latifi & Anr versus Union of India case, the SC upheld the validity of the Shah Bano judgement.
- In August 2017, a five-judge bench of the SC declared the triple talaq as unconstitutional in a majority 3:2 judgement. This was the culmination of a petition filed by Shayara Bano, whose husband of 15 years had divorced her through a letter where he pronounced talaq three times, to declare the divorce as void.
Triple Talaq bill
- During the proceedings of the case, the centre had told the bench that it will come out with a legislation to regulate the marriage and divorce among Muslims. As reported by various the newspapers, the centre is all set to table the bill in the Lok Sabha. The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill 2017 seeks to criminalise instant triple talaq.
- The bill will make instant triple talaq a cognizable and non-bailable offence
- The bill seeks to impose a prison term of up to three years and fine for any Muslim man who divorces his wife through instant triple talaq
- It also makes a provision for alimony i.e. subsistence allowance for the Muslim women and also grants her the custody of minor children
The Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2019
This was introduced in Lok Sabha by the Minister of Law and Justice, Mr. Ravi Shankar Prasad on June 21, 2019. It replaces an Ordinance promulgated on February 21, 2019.
The Bill makes all declaration of talaq, including in written or electronic form, to be void (i.e. not enforceable in law) and illegal.
- The Bill makes declaration of talaq a cognizable offence, attracting up to three years’ imprisonment with a fine. (A cognizable offence is one for which a police officer may arrest an accused person without warrant.)
- The offence will be cognizable only if information relating to the offence is given by:
- the married woman (against whom talaq has been declared), or
- any person related to her by blood or marriage.
- The Bill provides that the Magistrate may grant bail to the accused.
- The bail may be granted only after hearing the woman (against whom talaq has been pronounced), and if the Magistrate is satisfied that there are reasonable grounds for granting bail.
- The offence may be compounded by the Magistrate upon the request of the woman (against whom talaq has been declared). Compounding refers to the procedure where the two sides agree to stop legal proceedings, and settle the dispute.
- The terms and conditions of the compounding of the offence will be determined by the Magistrate.
- A Muslim woman against whom talaq has been declared is entitled to seek subsistence allowance from her husband for herself and for her dependent children. The amount of the allowance will be determined by the Magistrate.
- A Muslim woman against whom such talaq has been declared, is entitled to seek custody of her minor children. The manner of custody will be determined by the Magistrate.
Connecting the Dots:
- In what ways did the Shah Bano case change the politics in India? Analyse.
- Triple talaq verdict has been hailed as a progressive judgement. Analyse your opinion regarding the same.
Lok Sabha Passes the Code on Wages Bill, 2019
(Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation)
Aim: To transform the old and obsolete labour laws into more accountable and transparent ones which is need of the hour. As many as 17 present labour laws are more than 50 years old and some of them even belong to pre-independence era.
Among the four Acts being subsumed in The Code on Wages Bill, The Payment of Wages Act, 1936 belongs to pre-independence era and The Minimum Wages Act 1948 is also 71 years old. The Payment of Bonus Act, 1965 and The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 are also being subsumed in the Code.
- The Code ensures minimum wages along with timely payment of wages to all the employees and workers. Many unorganized sector workers like agricultural workers, painters, persons working in restaurants and dhabas, chowkidars etc. who were out of the ambit of minimum wages will get legislative protection of minimum wages after the bill becomes an Act. It has been ensured in the bill that employees getting monthly salary shall get the salary by 7th of next month, those working on weekly basis shall get the salary on last day of the week and daily wagers should get it on the same day (“Right to Sustenance”)
- There are 12 definitions of wages in the different Labour Laws leading to litigation besides difficulty in its implementation. The definition has been simplified and is expected to reduce litigation and will entail at lesser cost of compliance for an employer.
- Through Code on Wages, the methodology to fix the minimum wages has been simplified and rationalised by doing away with type of employment as one of the criteria for fixation of minimum wage.
Rajya Sabha passes Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Bill 2019
(Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation)
Aim: To improve road safety, facilitate citizens in their dealings with transport departments, strengthen rural transport, public transport and last mile connectivity through automation, computerization and online services.
- The Bill will provide an efficient, safe and corruption free transport system in the country.
- Based on the recommendations of the Group of Transport Ministers (GoM) of States constituted by the Ministry of Road Transport & Highways (headed by Shri. Yoonus Khan)
Road Safety: In the area of road safety, the Bill proposes to increase penalties to act as deterrent against traffic violations. Stricter provisions are being proposed in respect of offences like juvenile driving, drunken driving, driving without licence, dangerous driving, over-speeding, overloading etc. Stricter provisions for helmets have been introduced along with provisions for electronic detection of violations.
Vehicle Fitness: The Bill mandates automated fitness testing for vehicles. This would reduce corruption in the transport department while improving the road worthiness of the vehicle.
Road Safety Board: The Bill provides for a National Road Safety Board, to be created by the central government through a notification. The Board will advise the central and state governments on all aspects of road safety and traffic management including standards of motor vehicles, registration and licensing of vehicles, standards for road safety, and promotion of new vehicle technology.
Protection of Good Samaritan: To help road accident victims, Good Samaritan guidelines have been incorporated in the Bill. The Bill defines a Good Samaritan as a person who renders emergency medical or non-medical assistance to a victim at the scene of an accident, and provides rules to prevent harassment of such a person.
Cashless Treatment during Golden Hour: The Bill provides for a scheme for cashless treatment of road accident victims during golden hour.
Third Party Insurance: The Bill has included the driver’s attendant in 3rd Party insurance. re will be no cap on liability of insurers. There will be a 10 time increase in insurance compensation, from Rs 50, 000 to Rs 5 lakh. Claim process has been simplified. Insurance firms have to pay claims within a month, if the victim’s family agree to accept Rs 5 lakh compensation. The Bill also increases the minimum compensation for hit and run cases from Rs 25,000 to two lakh rupees in case of death, and from Rs 12,500 to Rs 50,000 in case of grievous injury.
Motor Vehicle Accident Fund: The Bill requires the central government to constitute a Motor Vehicle Accident Fund, to provide compulsory insurance cover to all road users in India. It will be utilised for: treatment of persons injured in road accidents as per the golden hour scheme, compensation to representatives of a person who died in a hit and run accident, compensation to a person grievously hurt in a hit and run accident, and compensation to any other persons as prescribed by the central government. This Fund will be credited through: payment of a nature notified by the central government, a grant or loan made by the central government, balance of the Solatium Fund (existing fund under the Act to provide compensation for hit and run accidents),or any other source as prescribed the central government.
Improving Services using e-Governance: Improving delivery of services to the stakeholders using e-Governance is one of the major focuses of this Bill. This includes
- Provision for online driving licenses: The Bill provides for online Learners Licence with mandatory online identity verification Driving test will be computerized to avoid fake D.L. The Bill will bring transparency in RTO offices. Commercial licenses will be valid upto five instead of three years. Application for renewal can be made one year prior to or after licence lapses. Driver Training Schools will be opened so that more efficient drivers may be available.
- Process of Vehicle Registration: To improve the registration process for new vehicles, registration at the end of the dealer is being enabled and restrictions have been imposed on temporary registration. To bring harmony of the registration and licensing process, it is proposed to create National Register for Driving Licence and National Register for Vehicle registration through “Vahan” & “Sarathi” platforms. This will facilitate uniformity of the process across the country.
Taxi aggregators: The Bill defines aggregators as digital intermediaries or market places which can be used by passengers to connect with a driver for transportation purposes (taxi services). The Bill provides guidelines for Aggregators.
Parliament passes the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Bill, 2019
(Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation)
The Bill amends the Unlawful Activities (Prevention) Act, 1967. The Act provides special procedures to deal with terrorist activities, among other things.
Terrorist acts are committed not by organizations but by individuals: Declaring an organization as a terrorist organization will not stop the individuals behind it. Not designating individuals as terrorists, would give them an opportunity to circumvent the law and they would simply gather under a different name and keep up their terror activities.
Only those individuals who participate in terrorist activities, aid those indulging in such activities, propagate the ideology of terrorism and members of known terrorist organizations will be declared as terrorists after this amendment is passed.
Who may commit terrorism: Under the Act, the central government may designate an organisation as a terrorist organisation if it: (i) commits or participates in acts of terrorism, (ii) prepares for terrorism, (iii) promotes terrorism, or (iv) is otherwise involved in terrorism. The Bill additionally empowers the government to designate individuals as terrorists on the same grounds.
Approval for seizure of property by NIA: Under the Act, an investigating officer is required to obtain the prior approval of the Director General of Police to seize properties that may be connected with terrorism. The Bill adds that if the investigation is conducted by an officer of the National Investigation Agency (NIA), the approval of the Director General of NIA would be required for seizure of such property.
Investigation by NIA: Under the Act, investigation of cases may be conducted by officers of the rank of Deputy Superintendent or Assistant Commissioner of Police or above. The Bill additionally empowers the officers of the NIA, of the rank of Inspector or above, to investigate cases.
Insertion to schedule of treaties: The Act defines terrorist acts to include acts committed within the scope of any of the treaties listed in a schedule to the Act. The Schedule lists nine treaties, including the Convention for the Suppression of Terrorist Bombings (1997), and the Convention against Taking of Hostages (1979). The Bill adds another treaty to the list. This is the International Convention for Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism (2005).
Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) launches Atal Community Innovation Centre (ACIC) Program
(Topic: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.)
- The programme aims at spurring community Innovation in underserved and unserved areas of the country.
- Through innovation, India can become a USD 5 trillion economy by 2024-25. ACIC can serve as the bridge between the knowledge base existing in communities and the advanced technical ecosystem prevalent in the market base, addressing the needs of society.
- The ACIC program should be connected to every Panchayati Raj Institutions to help innovators at grassroots level become part of the policy framework and leverage their creativity to translate their products/ services into innovation led commercial utilization for society.
- Extension of term of the commission constituted under Article 340 of the constitution to examine the issue of Sub-categorization within other Backward Classes in the Central List: The proposed extension of tenure shall enable the “Commission” to submit a comprehensive report on the issue of sub-categorization of OBCs, after consultation with various stake holders.
- Memorandum of Understanding between Indian Space Research Organisation and the Bolivian Space Agency on Cooperation in the Exploration and Uses of Outer Space for peaceful purposes: The signed MoU will provide impetus to explore newer research activities and application possibilities in the field of remote sensing of the earth; satellite communication; satellite navigation; space science and planetary exploration.
- ISRO Technical Liaison Unit at Moscow:
- ISRO will be able to collaborate with Space agencies/industries in Russia and neighbouring countries for mutually synergetic outcomes.
- ISRO’s Gaganyaan programme requires development of some of the key technologies and establishment of specialized facilities, which are essential to support life in space.
- Keeping in view the 15th August, 2022 timeline for realization of the Gaganyaan human space programme, it is prudent to avail technical cooperation from International space agencies, who have already demonstrated their technical capabilities in specific areas. Russia, being one of the space faring nations, it is envisaged to collaborate with Russia extensively in various fields of relevance.
- Memorandum of Understanding between India and Bahrain on Cooperation in the Exploration and Uses of Outer Space for Peaceful Purposes: The signed MoU will provide impetus to explore newer research activities and application possibilities in the field of remote sensing of the earth; satellite communication; satellite navigation; space science and exploration of outer space.
- Signing of the UN Convention on International Settlement Agreements resulting from mediation by India: Signing of the Convention will boost the confidence of the investors and shall provide a positive signal to foreign investors about India’s commitment to adhere to international practice on Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR).
‘Tiger Zinda Hai’ – Release of the Tiger Census Report 2018
(Topic: Environment and Ecology; Biodiversity; Animal Conservation; Protected Areas)
Nine long years ago, it was decided in Saint Petersburg, that the target of doubling the tiger population would be 2022. India completed this target four years early. The speed and dedication with which various stake-holders worked to achieve this is remarkable. This is one of the finest examples of ‘Sankalp se Siddhi’ i.e. achievement through resolve.
The report of the tiger census released on Monday showcases a significant achievement for the country’s conservation efforts. India is now home to 2,967 tigers. The last tiger audit in 2014 had counted 2,226 tigers. Even more remarkable is the fact that the latest census shows that the tiger population has increased by more than 100 per cent from 2006, when the numbers of the big cat had hit an all-time low of 1,411 — the animal had been completely wiped out from some reserves such as Sariska in Rajasthan.
- India is one of the world’s largest and most secure habitats with about 3000 tigers. Around three-fourths of the world’s population of tiger is found in our country.
- The number of tigers in Gir Forest there has increased by 27 per cent.
Why is a tiger census needed?
The tiger sits at the peak of the food chain, and its conservation is important to ensure the well-being of the forest ecosystem. The tiger estimation exercise includes habitat assessment and prey estimation. The numbers reflect the success or failure of conservation efforts. This is an especially important indicator in a fast-growing economy like India where the pressures of development often run counter to the demands of conservation.
The Global Tiger Forum, an international collaboration of tiger-bearing countries, has set a goal of doubling the count of wild tigers by 2022. More than 80% of the world’s wild tigers are in India, and it’s crucial to keep track of their numbers.
Why should we conserve our tigers?
The tiger is at the top of the food chain in several ecosystems and its conservation is important to ensure the health of these habitats. A steep fall in the tiger population could lead to a rise in the herbivore population, which could destroy forests by feeding on trees and plants. The number of tiger reserves has gone up from 28 in 2006 to 50 in 2018. Healthy increases in the population of tigers in these reserves have led to migration outside these protected areas. Several studies have shown that 25 to 30 per cent of the country’s tigers now live outside the core area of national parks.
But, isn’t there a flip side to the increase in the tiger population?
Yes – as the animals spill out of protected areas, their proximity to human habitats increases. And, when humans and tigers come face to face, the big cats often pose serious threats to humans and their livestock. There have been several reports of human-tiger conflict in the past five years.
Where has the tiger population increased the most?
The biggest increase has been in Madhya Pradesh — a massive 218 individuals (71%) from 308 in 2014 to 526. In Maharashtra, the number has gone up from 190 to 312 (64%), and in Karnataka, from 406 to 524 (118, or 29%). Uttarakhand has gained over 100 tigers (340 to 442; 30%)
However, since tigers keep moving between states, conservationists prefer to talk about tiger numbers in terms of landscapes. India’s five tiger landscapes are:
- Shivalik Hills and Gangetic Plains
- Central Indian Landscape and Eastern Ghats
- Western Ghats
- North-East Hills and Brahmaputra Plains
- The Sundarbans
Other countries: The National Tiger Conservation Authority has entered into an agreement with five countries including China and Russia and soon the agreement with other countries will also be finalized. Guatemala is also seeking technical help from us for the Jaguar Conservation there.
It will highly impact tourism and means of employment. Therefore, with the protection of tigers, we are also focusing on the creation of environmentally sustainable eco-tourism infrastructure.
Any other reasons why the number has gone up:
- Increased vigilance
- Organised poaching rackets have been all but crushed
- The increased protection has encouraged the tiger to breed
- The rehabilitation of villages outside core areas in many parts of the country has led to the availability of more inviolate space for tigers.
- Also, because estimation exercises have become increasingly more accurate over the years, it is possible that many tigers that eluded enumerators in earlier exercises were counted this time.
The Way Forward
- Only one of the 20 tiger-bearing states has seen a fall in numbers — Chhattisgarh, where the census counted 19 tigers, significantly fewer than the 46 of 2014. The report has cited law and order as the reason — large parts of the state are hit by the Maoist insurgency.
- Greater conservation efforts are needed in the “critically vulnerable” Northeast hills and Odisha.
- Urgent need of 24×7 monitoring using technology, management of corridors, building up the frontline capacity, creating village teams for reporting wild animal presence, and, an intersectoral portfolio at the landscape level akin to the “master plan” envisaged for an eco-sensitive zone.
Human-tiger interface management demands proactive measures. One cannot allow a big cat to get habituated and then brutally eliminate it. It is a tragic end for our national animal, and a complete travesty of the responsibility reposed on foresters and wildlife experts.
- Reduction in man-wildlife conflict: Last week, about 250-km from Lucknow, villagers beat to death a mature tigress who had strayed from the Pilibhit Tiger Reserve. The animal had reportedly attacked people, who were working in fields. And, last year, the forest department in Maharashtra’s Yavatmal district gunned down a tigress that had killed at least six people.
- These incidents point to a new conservation challenge: Devising wildlife protection models that work outside the tiger reserves.
- Today, several corridors that link tiger reserves are sites of infrastructure projects. In fact, on Monday, the Supreme Court quashed the Uttarakhand government’s proposal for a road on a corridor between the Rajaji Tiger Reserve and the Corbett Tiger Reserve. Sustaining the country’s tiger population will, therefore, require a deft balancing of the imperative of conservation with the needs of local people and the demands of infrastructure development.
- Better Synergy between Ministries: The need of the hour is better synergy with all ministries who are stakeholders in the process. This includes the ministries of Jal Shakti, agriculture, mines, power, road transport and highways, railways, health, home as well as MEA. For instance most reserves and tiger ranges are surrounded by agricultural areas, so it is important for the agriculture ministry to be involved. Apart from the various ministries, involvement of tiger and wildlife conservation experts, NGOs and local communities is important without whom tiger conservation is simply not possible
- Pilibhit Tiger Reserve is in Uttar Pradesh
- Kanha Tiger Reserve in Madhya Pradesh
- Bandhavgarh Tiger Reserve in M.P.
- Satkosia Tiger Reserve in Odisha (first-ever inter-State tiger translocation project)
- Parambikulam Tiger Reserve in Kerala
- Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary in Kerala
International Tiger Day is celebrated on 29 July annually to raise awareness about Tiger conservation
- Is a tiger conservation programme launched in April 1973
- Reduce factors that lead to the depletion of tiger habitats and to mitigate them by suitable management. The damages done to the habitat were to be rectified so as to facilitate the recovery of the ecosystem to the maximum possible extent.
- Ensure a viable tiger population for economic, scientific, cultural, aesthetic and ecological values.
- A country in West Africa that is almost entirely surrounded by Senegal with the exception of its western coastline along the Atlantic Ocean
- It is the smallest country within mainland Africa.
- Situated on both sides of the lower reaches of the Gambia River, the nation’s namesake, which flows through the centre of The Gambia and empties into the Atlantic Ocean
By-elections are elections conducted to fill elected offices that have become vacant between general elections. This may happen due to
- Death or dismissal of the person holding the office until then
World Breastfeeding Week
The Food and Nutrition Board, Ministry of Women and Child Development, is organizing a number of activities on the theme “Empower Parents, Enable Breastfeeding” during the World Breastfeeding Week (WBW) being observed from 1st to 7th August 2019.
This important nutrition intervention will help in breaking the vicious cycle of malnutrition and aid the Government to achieve National Nutrition Goals and Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 2030. According to WHO, increasing breastfeeding to near-international levels will help in saving more than 800 000 lives every year, the majority being children under 6 months.
The focus this year is on protection, promotion, and support of breastfeeding.
The objectives of World Breastfeeding Week are:
- To create awareness among the parents about breastfeeding
- Encourage parents to adopt breastfeeding
- Creating awareness about the importance of initiation and exclusive breastfeeding, and adequate and appropriate complementary feeding
- Providing advocacy material about the importance of breastfeeding.
Breastfeeding is important because:
- It promotes better health for mothers and children alike.
- It prevents infections like diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections in early infancy and thus reduce infant mortality
- It decreases the risk of mothers developing breast cancer, ovarian cancer, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease and
- It protects infants from obesity-related illnesses, diabetes and increases the IQ.
The correct norms of infant and young child feeding are:
- Initiation of Breastfeeding within an hour of birth
- Exclusive breastfeeding for first six months of life i.e. only breast Milk ‘NO’ other milk, food, drink or water
- Appropriate and adequate complementary feeding from six months of age while continuing breastfeeding
- Continued breastfeeding up to the age of two years or beyond
Pashmina Products Receive BIS Certification
Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) has published an Indian Standard for identification, marking and labelling of Pashmina products to certify its purity.
- The certification will help curb the adulteration of Pashmina and also protect the interests of local artisans and nomads who are the producers of Pashmina raw material. It will also assure the purity of Pashmina for customers.
- BIS certification of Pashmina will go a long way in discouraging counterfeit or substandard products presently mislabeled and sold as genuine Pashmina in the market. It is a step in the right direction and will ensure better prices for the goat herding community in Ladakh as well as for the local handloom artisans producing genuine Pashmina products, currently a disadvantaged lot due to rampant marketing malpractices.
- The nomadic Pashmina herders live in the hostile and tough terrain of Changthang and are solely dependent on Pashmina for their livelihood. At present, there are 2400 families rearing 2.5 lakh goats. This initiative of hallmarking Pashmina will protect the interests of these families, motivate the younger generation to continue in this profession as well as encourage more families to take up this occupation.
The Changthangi or Pashmina goat, is a special breed of goat indigenous to the high altitude regions of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir. They are raised for ultra-fine cashmere wool, known as Pashmina once woven. The Textiles are handspun and were first woven in Kashmir. The Changthangi goat grows a thick, warn undercoat which is the source of Kashmir Pashmina wool – the world’s finest cashmere measuring between 12-15 microns in fiber thickness.
These goats are generally domesticated and reared by nomadic communities called the Changpa in the Changthang region of Greater Ladakh. The Changthangi goats have revitalized the economy of Changthang, Leh and Ladakh region.
Skills Acquisition and Knowledge Awareness for Livelihood Promotion (SANKALP) Scheme
SANKALP is an outcome-oriented centrally sponsored programme of Ministry of Skill Development & Entrepreneurship (MSDE) with a special focus on decentralised planning and quality improvement. It focuses on the overall skilling ecosystem covering both Central & State agencies.
SANKALP aims to implement the mandate of the National Skill Development Mission (NSDM).Under SANKALP four key result areas have been identified viz:
(i) Institutional Strengthening (at National, State & District level)
(ii) Quality Assurance Quality Assurance of skill development programs
(iii) Inclusion of marginalised population in skill development
(iv) Expanding Skills through Public Private Partnerships (PPPs)
What have we done so far?
- 95.47 crores released as 1st year grant to 9 States under Skill India’s Sankalp scheme
- 11.7 crores cumulatively released to 117 Aspirational Districts (10 lakh each district)
- A robust IT system namely “Skill India Portal” has also been developed under SANKALP to capture and converge skill data.
- District Skill Committee (DSC) should play a pivotal role in counselling youth in their districts.
- Ministry has launched an award to promote skill planning at the district level, namely “District Skill Development Plan (DSDP) Awards”.