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SYNOPSIS [28th JULY,2021] Day 143: IASbaba’s TLP (Phase 1): UPSC Mains Answer Writing (General Studies)
1. Examine the significance of border infrastructure for managing security challenges in the border regions.
Introduce with facts on the length of Indian border and India’s neighbourhood.In next part address the what is the significance of border infrastructure.Then go on to write in brief what are issues which is plaguing its development and some recent efforts taken by Indian government.Conclusion can be summary oriented which highlights need of better infrastructure at faster pace.
India’s land border covers around 15,106 km sharing boundaries with Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Varied terrains, climatic conditions and hostile neighbours make its borders complex and border management an important part of its security.
Significance of border infrastructure for managing security challenges in the border regions
- It deals with major border security challenges – cross-border terrorism, infiltration and exfiltration of armed militants and insurgents, narcotics and arms smuggling; illegal migration; left-wing extremism and separatist movements aided by external powers.
- Proper border road infra will reduce trafficking and smuggling, which is currently a big cause concern for India and neighbouring countries. One of the most important advantages is development of legal and amicable trade relations with neighbouring countries. Examples of it are trade through Attari-Wagha border and Border Haats with Bangladesh and many more with Nepal, Bhutan, etc.
- Proper border road infra will reduce trafficking and smuggling, which is currently a big cause concern for India and neighbouring countries.
- Another major economic benefit is inclusive growth and development. Border road infrastructure, especially in harsh terrains such as northeast and Jammu & Kashmir provides avenue for self-employment and boost to traditional small scale Industries.
- Furthermore, tourism in Himalayas has not reached to its full potential due to improper road infrastructure. To tap full potential of natural tourism avenues we must further improve our border road infra.
- One of the major advantages is that through border road infra India will be successful in pushing for her ambitious neighbourhood first and act east policies. It will act as soft power in terms of creating people to people contacts. Best example of this is the most recent project of Kartarpur Corridor.
- Border road infra helps in maintaining peace and stability by controlling the security concerns related to inter-region and intra-region issues.
- The task of national integration which started with independence of India and still going on will be incomplete without border road infra. Connectivity and inclusivity are the important tools for national integration of far-flung areas such as Northeastern states and Ladakh, etc.
- Another important advantage of border roads is in proper and swift disaster management. Difficult and harsh terrains of Indian borders and relatively low development of bordering countries make it inevitable for India to prepared and self-sufficient to handle any kind of disasters.
Challenges in Border infrastructure sector
- Even after about 10 years of implementation of BADP, the border blocks are yet to be opened up and are in utter backwardness due to their isolation and inaccessibility.
- The State Government, though handicapped by its limited resources, is committed to accelerate the pace of development and is trying its best for development of the border areas.
- Presently, 10% of BADP 6 fund allotted to the State Government is earmarked for security related schemes to be implemented by the state police and paramilitary forces and the balance 90% fund is equally distributed amongst the bordering blocks.
- National credit registry politics in Arunachal Pradesh, Sinhalese prosecution in Sri Lanka are some of the other domestic politics. Rough and difficult terrain, tough Weather and Climatic conditions, Seismically active areas in most of the border, Inadequate manpower, funds with Border Road organisation (BRO), Redtapism and bureaucratic delays in projects also act as hindrance.
Recent steps taken for enhancing border management
- Creating infrastructure: India is also constructing some critical bridges to cut down time for troop movement such as Dhola – Sadiya bridge.
- India has joined hands with Japan to aggressively develop infrastructure projects in North east to contain China.
- Army infrastructure projects within 100 Km of LAC have been exempted from forest clearance.
- To expedite border road construction, Ministry of Defence has decided to delegate administrative and financial powers to the Border Roads Organisation (BRO).
- Creation of Chief of Defence staff (CDS).
India is having one of the longest border with different neighbours.Two of which are hostile and have had wars in past.This makes border infrastructure a critical aspect for the national security of India.In recent years especially the attack in Galwan by China have highlighted how India’s progress on border infrastructure have been helpful to thwart such attacks.Further there needs to be more rapid pace of development for better cordial relations with friendly neighbours and shielding India against the hostile neighbours.
2. Examine the the nexus between organised crime with terrorism and the security challenges arising out of it.
Define what what is organised crime and terrorism in introduction or you can start with a statistic on these issues contextualising in India.In next part write about what is this nexus between organised crime and what some issues challenges emanate out of it.Conclusion should be reforms oriented.
Organised crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralised enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit.While terrorism is a Violent, criminal acts committed by individuals and/or groups who are inspired by, or associated with, designated foreign terrorist organisations or nations (state-sponsored).
Nexus between organised crime and terrorism
- Terrorist groups need arms and money to fight against security forces. The organised criminals and terrorist groups become clients of each other. Organised criminals groups smuggle arms, drugs, cattle, humans to generate money for terrorist groups.
- Terrorist groups always try to destabilise the country and bring down the morale of security forces. When the terrorist groups are unable to confront the security forces directly, they turn towards organised criminals. Thus organised criminals indirectly help these terrorist groups.
- Organised criminal groups generally establish a strong communication network. These organised groups act as eyes and ears of the terrorist groups.
- Terrorist organisations in India, especially in the northeast, mobilise funds by becoming couriers of illegal drugs and arms and at times even human beings from one point to another within the country.
- Terrorists are always in need of money. As they fail to mobilise large amounts of money, they take the help of organised criminals to exchange counterfeit currency with arms.
- Penetration of Organised crime and its link with terrorism in different states of India.
Challenges arising out pf relationship between organised crime and terrorism:
- Organised crime poses a serious problem for India, with well-established trade in drugs, weapons, and humans supported by the informal hawala money transfer network.
- Developing countries with weak rule of law can be particularly susceptible to Terrorism and Organised Crime (TOC)penetration. TOC penetration of states is deepening, leading to co-option in a few cases and further weakening of governance in many others.
- Threats to the Economy, Competitiveness, and Strategic Markets. TOC threatens economic interests and can cause significant damage to the world financial system through its subversion, exploitation, and distortion of legitimate markets and economic activity.
- Human smuggling is the facilitation, transportation, attempted transportation, or illegal entry of a person or persons across an international border, in violation of one or more countries’ laws, either clandestinely or through deception, whether with the use of fraudulent documents or through the evasion of legitimate border controls.
The evolving relationship between terrorism and crime poses significant challenges to the international community. There is a need to develop effective and tailor-made responses to the organised crime and terrorism, which address the underlying causes of the convergence at all levels, based on strong evidence, engagement with local actors, good governance, enhanced services delivery and capacity building and the incorporation of normative frameworks.
3. How is illegal movement of goods and people across the border a security threat? Illustrate with the help of suitable examples.
Introduce with the length of Indian border which makes it vulnerable for various security threat.In next part explain challenges with examples.In conclusion suggest some reforms for better management of borders.
India’s border with Bangladesh runs 4,096 km, 3,323 km with Pakistan, 1,751 km with Nepal and 1,643 km with Myanmar.Each of these borders are long , have difficult terrain and is porous in many sectors.This poses various security threats to India such as terrorism, drug trafficking, illegal migration, Human trafficking, arms trafficking etc.
These have led to illegal movement of goods and people across the border, which has brought following threats –
- Drugs trade: Golden Crescent and Golden Triangle at western and eastern borders respectively bring the menace of narcotics in our society.This corrupts the youth of India and mares a healthy future for Indian society.
- Arms and ammunition: Military grade old weapons of Chinese army when reach to insurgent group, makes them heady and dangerous.This has been observed in naxal belts of India, terrorist in Kashmir get weapons from Pakistan.This leads to attacks on India which harms the peaceful atmosphere.
- Counterfeit currency: Fake Indian currency notes travelling through pours border raises economic threat.This leads to economic loss which further is used in supporting various crimes such as terrorism, human trafficking.Use od counterfeit currency is one of the prime source of terrorism funding.
- Organised crime: Human and organ trafficking at border is also a concern to security forces.The porous borders make this easier which harms many young children and girls especially.
- Anti-India organisation such as ULFA, NSCN etc can easily move out /in of country due to pours border .Hence their movement gets sustained.
- Radicalisation: Demography change and radicalisation through influx of refugee. This has been seen in Assam and the Northeastern states of India with the influx of Bangladeshi migrants which have caused violence in Bodoland area and Kokrajhar.
- Funding for Crimes: Rise in illegal money through smuggling of cattle, kerosene, and sugar etc provides fund for other crimes.
- Terrorism: In Mumbai attack of 2008, terrorist got easy entry through coastal border.There have been many cross border attacks such as Uri, Pathankot, and attack by NSCN in Nagaland.These attacks lead to loss of lives of soldiers and civilians.
- Problem of Fugitive: Criminal get easy refugee in these countries after committing crime inside India.
- Influx of refugee: infiltration of refugees such as in case of Rohingya’s. This has led to protest by citizens for refugees occupying land and taking the benefits of needy in India.
Porous borders have led to many socioeconomic and security issues in India. Therefore It is imperative to implement Comprehensive Integrated Border Management System (CIBMS) which will help to reduce the porosity with technology and better management.One could take lessons from Israel in this regard. Recommendation of Madukar Gupta committee to strengthen border protection and address vulnerabilities in fencing border would be helpful.