Resolution ‘pre-packs’ for MSMEs

  • IASbaba
  • July 29, 2021
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  • GS-3: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment. 
  • GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Resolution ‘pre-packs’ for MSMEs

Context: The Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code (Amendment) Bill, 2021, passed by Lok Sabha on Wednesday has proposed ‘pre-packs’ as an insolvency resolution mechanism for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). 

What are ‘pre-packs’?

  • A pre-pack envisages the resolution of the debt of a distressed company through a direct agreement between secured creditors and the existing owners or outside investors, instead of a public bidding process.
  • Under the pre-pack system, financial creditors will agree to terms with the promoters or a potential investor, and seek approval of the resolution plan from the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT).
  • The approval of at least 66% of financial creditors that are unrelated to the corporate debtor would be required before a resolution plan is submitted to the NCLT. 
  • The NCLTs will be required to either accept or reject an application for a pre-pack insolvency proceeding before considering a petition for a Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process (CIRP).
  • This system of insolvency proceedings has become an increasingly popular mechanism for insolvency resolution in the UK and Europe over the past decade

How are pre-packs better than CIRP?

  • One of the key criticisms of the CIRP has been the time it takes for resolution. 
  • At the end of March 2021, 79% of the 1,723 ongoing insolvency resolution proceedings had crossed the 270-day threshold. A major reason for the delays is the prolonged litigation by erstwhile promoters and potential bidders.
  • The pre-pack in contrast, is limited to a maximum of 120 days with only 90 days available to stakeholders to bring a resolution plan for approval before the NCLT.
  • Another key difference between pre-packs and CIRP is that the existing management retains control in the case of pre-packs; in the case of CIRP, a resolution professional takes control of the debtor as a representative of financial creditors. This ensures minimal disruption of operations relative to a CIRP.

Is that the reason why the pre-pack has been introduced?

  • Pre-packs are largely aimed at providing MSMEs with an opportunity to restructure their liabilities and start with a clean slate while still providing adequate protections so that the system is not misused by firms to avoid making payments to creditors.
  • Currently, only corporate debtors themselves are permitted to initiate a Pre-Insolvency Resource Package (PIRP) after obtaining the approval of 66% of their creditors.
  • The pre-pack mechanism does however, allow for a ‘Swiss challenge’ to any resolution plan that provides less than full recovery of dues for operational creditors.
    • Under the Swiss challenge mechanism, any third party would be permitted to submit a resolution plan for the distressed company, and the original applicant would have to either match the improved resolution plan or forego the investment.

What challenges can pre-packs bring?

  • The timeline for PIRP may be difficult to meet for lenders and distressed firms, 
  • Ordinarily where haircuts are involved, forensic/transaction audits become imperative, and a negative report may become a roadblock in resolution involving the same management.
  • If a firm restructures its outstanding debt through a PIRP with the existing management retaining control, the NPA status of the company’s account with lenders may not be automatically upgraded under RBI guidelines.
    • There is a need for the IBBI and RBI to find middle ground on these regulations to make the PIRP more attractive
  • Also, debtor-in-possession model may militate against the Swiss challenge option, as the existing management may create hurdles for an outside investor seeking information to potentially invest in the company.
    • Under CIRP, a resolution professional is in charge of running the company and providing information to potential investors.


Experts have noted that the pre-pack mechanism is effective in arriving at a quick resolution for distressed companies, and that the regime should be rolled out to all corporations over time as legal issues are settled through case law.

Connecting the dots:

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