Census 2021 with a Mixed-Mode Approach

  • IASbaba
  • December 6, 2021
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  • GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.
  • GS-3: Developmental challenges

Census 2021 with a Mixed-Mode Approach

Part of: Prelims and Mains GS – II – Government policies and interventions

Context: Due to outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, the Census 2021 and related field activities have been postponed. 

  • Will be the first digital Census
  • Mobile App for collection of data and a Census Portal for management and monitoring of various Census related activities have been developed.
  • State Governments of Bihar, Maharashtra and Odisha have requested to collect caste details
  • The names of the mother tongue and two other languages known in order of proficiency are to be recorded
  • There is a provision for self-enumeration. Self-enumeration refers to completion of census survey questionnaires by the respondents themselves.

What is Census?

  • In Census (decennial census), data is collected on demographic and various socio-economic parameters like education, SC/ST, religion, language, marriage, fertility, disability, occupation and migration of the individuals. 
  • Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India under Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India is responsible for carrying out the census. 
  • It provides information on size, distribution and socio-economic, demographic and other characteristics of the country’s population. 
  • The first synchronous census in India was held in 1881. Since then, censuses have been undertaken uninterruptedly once every ten years.
  • As per the official Gazette, the individual data collected in Census under the Census Act, 1948, are not made public as per the provisions contained in the Act. 
    • The individual data are not used for the preparation of any other database, including the National Register of Citizens. 
  • Only the aggregated Census data at various administrative levels are released.
  • The Census 2021 will be conducted in 18 languages out of the 22 scheduled languages (under 8th schedule) and English, while Census 2011 was in 16 of the 22 scheduled languages declared at that time.
  • The Census data would be available by the year 2024-25 as the entire process would be conducted digitally and data crunching would be quicker.

Census Act 1948

The Census Act 1948, as amended in 1994 defines the act as:,In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires —

(a) “premises” means any land, building or part of a building and includes a hut, shed or other structure or any part thereof;

(b) “Prescribed” means prescribed by rules made under this Act;

(c) “Vehicle” means any vehicle used or capable of being used for road transport, whether propelled by mechanical power or otherwise

What is the Registrar-General and Census Commissioner of India?

  • Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India, was founded in 1961 by the Government of India, Ministry of Home Affairs.
  • Role: Arranging, conducting and analysing the results of the demographic surveys of India including Census of India and Linguistic Survey of India. 
  • The position of Registrar is usually held by a civil servant holding the rank of Joint Secretary.

What is the Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC)?

  • Socio-Economic Caste Census (SECC), which collected the first figures on caste since 1931, is the largest exercise of the enumeration of caste. 
  • SECC supplies data to differentiate the socio-economic status of households based on housing, educational status, landholding, differently abled, occupation, possession of assets, SC/ST households, incomes etc.
  • The Census thus provides a portrait of the Indian population, while the SECC is a tool to identify beneficiaries of state support.

News Source: PIB

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