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World Tuberculosis Day

  • IASbaba
  • March 23, 2022
  • 0
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World Tuberculosis Day

Part of: Prelims and GS II – Health

Context: Health and Family Welfare Minister Dr Mansukh Mandaviya will inaugurate the Step-Up to End TB-World TB Day Summit on the occasion of World TB Day on 24th of March.

  • The two days summit will provide a forum to showcase the National TB Elimination Programme’s learnings and successes.

About World TB Day 

  • It is observed every year on 24th March, to commemorate the anniversary discovery of the TB bacteria by Dr. Robert Koch in 1882.
  • Objective: To build public awareness about the global epidemic of tuberculosis (TB).
  • UN has marked 2030 as a global target to eliminate TB worldwide
  • Initiatives:
    • National Strategic Plan for Tuberculosis Elimination (2017-2025) by Union Ministry of Health & Family Welfare aims to eliminate the prevalence of TB by 2025
    • Nikshay Poshan Yojana (NPY) is a direct benefit transfer (DBT) scheme for nutritional support to TB patients rolled out in April 2018 by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
    • Under the Yojana, financial incentive of Rs.500/month is to be provided for each notified TB patient (registered on NIKSHAY portal) for duration during which the patient is on anti-TB treatment.
    • NPY is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme under National Health Mission
    • ‘TB Harega Desh Jeetega’ Campaign was launched in September 2019 consisting of three pillars – clinical approach, public health component and active community participation – as a part of strategy to eliminate TB by 2025.

What is TB?

  • TB is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis, belonging to the Mycobacteriaceae family consisting of about 200 members.
  • In humans, TB most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB), but it can also affect other organs (extra-pulmonary TB).
  • TB is a treatable and curable disease.
  • Transmission: TB is spread from person to person through the air. 
    • When people with lung TB cough, sneeze or spit, they propel the TB germs into the air.
  • Common symptoms of active lung TB are cough with sputum and blood at times, chest pains, weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats.
  • Eight countries accounted for two thirds of the new TB cases: 
    • India, Indonesia, China, Philippines, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh and South Africa.
  • MultiDrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a strain of TB that cannot be treated with the two most powerful first-line treatment anti-TB drugs. 
  • Extensively Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by bacteria that are resistant to several of the most effective anti-TB drugs.
  • Vaccines used against TB: BCG Vaccine

News Source: Newsonair

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