World Tuberculosis Day
Part of: Prelims and GS II – Health
Context: Health and Family Welfare Minister Dr Mansukh Mandaviya will inaugurate the Step-Up to End TB-World TB Day Summit on the occasion of World TB Day on 24th of March.
- The two days summit will provide a forum to showcase the National TB Elimination Programme’s learnings and successes.
About World TB Day
- It is observed every year on 24th March, to commemorate the anniversary discovery of the TB bacteria by Dr. Robert Koch in 1882.
- Objective: To build public awareness about the global epidemic of tuberculosis (TB).
- UN has marked 2030 as a global target to eliminate TB worldwide
- National Strategic Plan for Tuberculosis Elimination (2017-2025) by Union Ministry of Health & Family Welfare aims to eliminate the prevalence of TB by 2025
- Nikshay Poshan Yojana (NPY) is a direct benefit transfer (DBT) scheme for nutritional support to TB patients rolled out in April 2018 by Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
- Under the Yojana, financial incentive of Rs.500/month is to be provided for each notified TB patient (registered on NIKSHAY portal) for duration during which the patient is on anti-TB treatment.
- NPY is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme under National Health Mission
- ‘TB Harega Desh Jeetega’ Campaign was launched in September 2019 consisting of three pillars – clinical approach, public health component and active community participation – as a part of strategy to eliminate TB by 2025.
What is TB?
- TB is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis, belonging to the Mycobacteriaceae family consisting of about 200 members.
- In humans, TB most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB), but it can also affect other organs (extra-pulmonary TB).
- TB is a treatable and curable disease.
- Transmission: TB is spread from person to person through the air.
- When people with lung TB cough, sneeze or spit, they propel the TB germs into the air.
- Common symptoms of active lung TB are cough with sputum and blood at times, chest pains, weakness, weight loss, fever and night sweats.
- Eight countries accounted for two thirds of the new TB cases:
- India, Indonesia, China, Philippines, Pakistan, Nigeria, Bangladesh and South Africa.
- MultiDrug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a strain of TB that cannot be treated with the two most powerful first-line treatment anti-TB drugs.
- Extensively Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is a form of TB caused by bacteria that are resistant to several of the most effective anti-TB drugs.
- Vaccines used against TB: BCG Vaccine
News Source: Newsonair