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Polio eradication

  • IASbaba
  • October 20, 2022
  • 0
Science and Technology
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In news: Global leaders committed to donating $2.54 billion (or Rs 19 crore) for eradicating polio at the World Health Summit.

  • Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation pledged $1.2 billion to the largest international public health initiative, Global Polio Eradication Initiative  (GPEI).

About:

  • Wild poliovirus is endemic in just two countries — Pakistan and Afghanistan.
  • However, there has been new detections of polio this year in previously polio-free countries like the United States, Israel and the United Kingdom and southeast Africa.
  • The funding will support vaccinating 370 million children annually over the next five years and continue disease surveillance across 50 countries.
  • It also includes roll-out of the novel oral polio vaccine type 2 (nOPV2) to stop outbreaks of type 2 circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV) more sustainably.
  • Additionally, outbreaks of cVDPV, variants of the poliovirus can emerge in places where not enough people have been immunized.

Significance:

  • If fully funded, the strategy can save up to $33.1 billion in health cost savings this century compared to the price of controlling outbreaks.
  • It would also be able to deliver additional health services and immunizations alongside polio vaccines to underserved communities.

About World Health Summit:

  • World Health Summit is an international health conference held annually in Berlin, Germany.
  • It was founded in 2009 and is traditionally held under the patronage of the German Chancellor, the French President, the President of the European Commission, and the Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO).
  • Aim: to bring together stakeholders from politics, science, the private sector, and civil society from around the world to set the agenda for a healthier future by inspiring innovative solutions for better health and well-being for all.

About Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI):

  • It is a public-private partnership led by national governments with six partners
  • World Health Organization (WHO)
  • Rotary International
  • the US Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
  • the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
  • Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
  • Gavi, the vaccine alliance.
  • Its goal is to eradicate polio worldwide.

MUST READ: Polio disease

Source: Down to Earth

Previous Year Question

Q.1) Consider the following diseases (2014)

  1. Diphtheria
  2. Chickenpox
  3. Smallpox

Which of the above diseases has/have been eradicated in India?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 3 only
  3. 1, 2 and 3
  4. None

 

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