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SYNOPSIS: IASbaba’s TLP 2017 [15th Feb] – Day 23

  • March 4, 2017
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IASbaba's Think Learn and Perform 2017, UPSC Mains Answer Writing
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SYNOPSIS- IASbaba’s TLP 2017 [15th Feb] – Day 23

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1. What are the locational factors for Paper Industry? Is India well placed in terms of paper manufacturing? What are the challenges associated with paper industry in India? Examine.

Even though this question is specific, let’s discuss some general rules of industrial location according to geographical theory. It is not important for you to remember the name of the theory but it will guide you to write your answer in a correct manner even if you don’t know about the specific industry.

SYNOPSIS: IASbaba’s TLP 2017 [15th Feb] - Day 23

According to a geographical theory, the location of an industry is largely influenced the transportation cost of raw materials and finished product.

If an industry is a weight losing industry, i.e. the net weight of product is less than the net weight of raw material, than the industry is located near the raw materials. Eg. Iron and steel industry, glass industry etc.

It there is no loss or gain in the net weight of raw material and product, then the industry can be placed anywhere between raw material and market. Other factors become more important. Eg. Cotton, leather etc. They are also called footlose industry as they can be placed anywhere.

If an industry is weight gaining industry, i.e. the net weight of final product increases, then the industry is located near the market. Eg. Automobile, heavy machinery etc.

Before approaching the answer you need to identify and mention in the answer what type of industry is there in question according to weight. For ex. Here Paper is a weight losing industry and hence it will always be placed close to its chief raw material – soft wood or bamboo.

Several other factors which you all have mentioned are – cheap labour, energy, suitable government policies, interlinking industries like chemical industries etc.

A map is a very important part of a locational answer. So there should always be one map.

SYNOPSIS: IASbaba’s TLP 2017 [15th Feb] - Day 23

Indian paper industry is facing several challenges:

  • Low demand in global markets and process of dumping imports in Indian markets has led to drop in profits.
  • One of the major cause of deforestation is paper and pulp industry. Now manufacturers are moving towards alternate sources but it is becoming quite difficult to find enough raw materials to produce books, printing papers, magazines and so forth.
  • Indian manufacturers have still not adopted to advanced technologies of production and are stuck with older methods giving high cost of production.
  • Most of the industries are located in remote location so they do not attract a good workforce.
  • The revenue generated is much less as compared to other industries so new entrepreneurs are not entering this field.
  • Paper industries are also one of the most polluting industries because of the use of chemicals. Strict environment laws has also caused a set back to the industry.
  • As the government and offices are going paperless, there is a gradual decline in the home demand of paper as well.

(More points can be added in this section.)

Best Answer : 71RR

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2. Discuss the conditions favourable for hospitality industry. Identify various regions in the world including India where there is high concentration of hospitality and related services.

Introduction:

The hospitality industry is a broad category of fields within service industry that includes lodging, event planning, theme parks, transportation, cruise line, and additional fields within the tourism industry. The hospitality industry is a multibillion-dollar industry that depends on the availability of leisure time and disposable income.

Body:

Conditions favorable for hospitality industry:

  1. Tourism attraction:
  2. Historical monuments (the Taj Mahal, Jaipur fort, Mysore Palace etc.),
  3. Natural beauty and/or exotic animals (waterfalls, tiger reserves etc.)
  4. medical treatment facilities: ( Surrogacy industry in India)
  5. Adventure Tourism: Himalayas, Switzerland, Australian Ocean Surfing.
  6. Adequate Infrastructure: To facilitate access to above mentioned sites and to ensure a comfortable visit. These include airports, railway stations, roads etc.
    3. Low crime rate, peace and effective authorities: Wars destroy the hospitality industry (Palmyra, Syria) and tourists prefer a place where crime is low and the police and the authorities are helpful.
    4. High disposable incomes and a thriving economy: People with greater money to spare tend to travel and spend more. A growing economy attracts a great deal of business interaction.
    5. A liberal visa regime which facilitates faster approvals and hassle free stays.

Various regions where there is high concentration of hospitality & related services:

1) ASIA: South East Asian nations such as Singapore, Thailand, Bangkok, Hong Kong etc. for its natural beauty.
2) NORTH AMERICA & EUROPE: Most developed regions in all the related sectors, AMERICA for its commercial, entertainment and scenic assets. Scandinavian countries, Britain etc. for its climatic and commercial factors, SPAIN, ITALY for historical and cultural assets.
3) AFRICA: South Africa for wildlife, and other Saharan countries.
4) SOUTH AMERICA: Geographical regions of ALPS, BRAZIL, ARGENTINA for their sport events.
5) MIDDLE EAST: Commercial tourist and luxurious centers of DUBAI, ABHU DHABI etc.

Conclusion:

Write a brief conclusion.

Best answer: Naruto

Servies in the fields of food & beverage, recreation, lodging, travel and tourism all accounts to Industry of Hospitality. In the Globalistation era, this industry has become a safe bet for businesses.
CONDITIONS FAVOURABLE FOR THE INDUSTRY.
For any country the following factors play catalyst in industry’s growth.
1) NATURAL factors: Islands, beaches, climatic factors, Animals etc attracts huge no. of peoples.
2) REGULATORY drivers: Providing tax holidays to star hotels, exemption of luxury taxes, Medical Visas, and a liberal visa policies.
3) INTERNAL drivers : Proper infrastructure for transport & shelter, hosting major sport events, assuring peace and security etc.
4) EXTERNAL drivers : a growth in economy, increasing incomes, various pacts between nations etc.

VARIOUS REGIONS of HIGH CONCENTRATION OF HOSPITALITY SERVICES.
WORLD :
1) ASIA : South east asian nations such as Singapore, Thailand, Bangkok, Hongkong etc. for its natural beauty.
2) NORTH AMERICA & EUROPE : Most developed regions in all the related sectors, AMERICA for its commercial , entertainment and scenic assets. Scandinavian countries, Britain etc for its climatic and commercial factors, SPAIN , ITALY for historical and cultural assets.
3) AFRICA : South Africa for wildlife, and other Saharan countries.
4) SOUTH AMERICA : Geographical regions of ALPS, BRAZIL, ARGENTINA for their sport events.
5) MIDDLE EAST : Commercial tourist and luxurious centers of DUBAI, ABHU DHABI etc

INDIA:
Known for its diversity not only in its people but also in its historical and geographical aspects, the country has places of attract as –
GEOGRAPHICAL (Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Himalyas, etc.) States of Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, Karnataka. HISTORICAL ( Agra, Delhi, Hyderabad, Mysore) , SPIRITUAL( Tirupathi, Ajmer, Amritsar etc), & COMMERCIAL ( Goa, Mumbai, Bangalore, Pune etc.)

Contributing 7.5% to GDP, and providing massive forex reserves, this industry is being encouraged by Government through various schemes such as Incredible India, Athiti Devo Bhava campaigns, Make In India etc.


3. The automobile industry has witnessed major changes in the past two decades. Do you agree? Analyse.

Introduction:

Automobile industry has been the backbone of modern trade and commerce, which itself has undergone many changes over the past two decades.

Body:

Changes in the automobile industry:

  1. Shift in Production: the globalized world has seen the shift of production from Europe and America to the likes of Japan, China and South Korea
  2. Emission norms: countries have rapidly adopted Euro 6 norms and India is moving towards Bharat Stage VI which has forced producers to check NOx and SOx emissions.
  3. Clean Energy: focus has shifted from petroleum-based cars to ones using alternative sources of fuel such as electricity and bio-fuels.
  4. Smart Tech: proliferation of smart technology has made modern cars more efficient and safe, Bluetooth and GPS are now common accessories of the car
  5. Safety: Air bags, ABS, ESS etc. have become common and in some countries mandatory.
  6. Product Improvement: attempts to use lighter material for the body of the car for greater fuel efficiency, for the non-core components plastic has replaced steel.
  7. Employment: automation has led to a decline in employment within the industry since the 1990s
  8. Shift in market: the demand in developed countries has started to decline as developing countries like BRICS lead the market demand
  9. Shift in demand: from fuel guzzling bigger cars now demand has shifted to more fuel efficient compact cars more suitable for the urban commute.

Conclusion:

Write a brief conclusion.

Best answer: Vivek

Major changes in automobile industry during past two decades includes:
1. Change in focus from more powerful car to more efficient car: Clean combustion, higher power transmission efficiency, emission control technologies etc became a common feature.
2. Computerization: From a mechanical machine, automobiles evolved into micro-chip controlled high tech engines. Helps optimizing performance and comfort. The most recent development is seen by advent of driverless cars.
3. Industrial Automation: The production process evolved into one of the most automated industries in the world. Shift from skilled people to smart robots.
4. Advent of hybrid, electric and hydrogen fuel cell based automobiles: Shift to environment friendly technologies
5. Biodiesel, ethanol and hydrogen combustion engines
6. Safety features: Evolution of stricter safety measures and standards

Yes, indeed the automobile industry witnessed major changes in the past two decades, but the real transformation is yet to reach. With petrol and diesel expected to be vanished in next 50 years, the complete transformation of automobile industry into renewable sources are not yet realized. Hopefully the industry can undergo a complete radical transformation in next two decades.


4. The conviction of tainted politicians bears testimony to the strength and independence of judiciary in India. Discuss. The same, however, stands in sharp contrast with the huge pendency of cases in the judicial system. Do you agree? Comment.

A lackadaisical and limping judiciary has far more serious consequences for society than the harm it inflicts on individual litigants. It is rule of law that distinguishes us from pre-historic barbaric societies. The very foundation of civilised society rests on justice. Today, corrupt elements in government, business, politics flout the law with impunity and without fear of punishment. The authority to punish lies with the judiciary. The police, the CBI and even the much-publicised Lokpal can only accuse a person. Finality and closure in a case comes with the judgment from the court.

Recent instances of conviction of tainted politicians by the Judiciary of India (you can provide examples of Sasikala, Om Prakash Chautala, Lalu Prasad Yadav conviction) has sent a clear message to the corrupt politicians and bureaucrats that, however, rich and influential they may be, they cannot escape from the clutches of law if they indulge in corruption and other crimes. It has also boosted general public’s confidence on judiciary.

However, in the current system, where almost 30 million cases are pending, it takes anywhere between 12 to 15 years for a judgment.  Judicial ineffectiveness is to a great extent responsible for the increase in crimes like rape, murder, looting, cheating and so on.

Speedy justice is not only our fundamental right but also a prerequisite for maintaining the rule of law and delivering good governance. In its absence, the judicial system ends up serving the interests of the corrupt and the law-breakers. Failed attempts in the past to secure this right have, over the years, led to erosion in people’s faith in the judicial system, signs of which are visible in the growing vigilantism.

Our Constitution, being the source of every law that governs us, is not a self-executing document. There has to be a mechanism to enforce, in letter and spirit, all that is enshrined in it. In the absence of an effective mechanism, the Constitution is in danger of being reduced to a piece of fiction.

The need of hour is to appoint new judges, to have fast track courts for serious offence and to have law reforms (so that people can not misuse the loopholes). The conviction of few politicians is a positive step but at the same time, judiciary, legislative and executive need to coordinate to address the pendency of cases and ensure the punishment for the culprits.

Best answer 1: Karthik

  1. https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/6a0fa9f4c2cff82f59faba63688578be90b02a63af3db1f6a54f4d18f47093f9.jpg
  2. https://uploads.disquscdn.com/images/a8e645190b267e8010652e8975d187dcc76ac0a2bf716e29b44fe477dc4caf41.jpg

Best answer 2: Ghalib

It has been always said that in India, corrupt politicians are never punished. There have been certain examples in recent times, when conviction of tainted politicians resulted into punishment and stopped them for fighting any election or to acquire any position in executive. The conviction of Lalu Prasad Yadav, Shashikala, Om Prakash Chautala has stopped them in fighting elections. After the conviction of big leaders, it has boosted general public’s confidence on judiciary.

At the same time, the number of actual convictions are very few. The cases are taking long time for taking final decision. For the conviction of Shashikala, the case was regarding inappropriate wealth generated between 1991-1996 Similarly Lalu Prasad Yadav’s fodder scam is also two decades old. This shows the slow speed and large pendency of cases. We have more than 30 millions cases pending with only 21000 judges to hear them. With such a speed, people are not having any fear of punishment. In most of the cases, the case can be dragged for many years in judicial hierarchy and later on finally the tainted person dies before the result of actual case.

The need of hour is to appoint new judges, to have fast track courts for serious offence and to have law reforms (so that people can not misuse the loopholes). The conviction of few politicians is a positive step but at the same time, judiciary, legislative and executive need to coordinate to address the pendency of cases and ensure the punishment for the culprits.


5. How effective is the policy of branding government initiatives through film and sports celebrities? Explain by taking suitable examples.

Research and survey has proved that branding government initiatives through film and sports celebrities and advertisementing with celebs as brand ambassador has greater appeal to the consumers and has been effective for fighting social issues.

This is because, in India, many people have celebrities as their role model, they are ideal icons for youth and masses in general. So masses would like to follow them, try to emulate their lifestyles and thoughts, keenly adhere to their advice out of love and respect.

The policy of branding government initiatives through film and sports celebrities has succeeded in targeting general audience and has value added for some social awareness campaigns.

Governments from time to time have roped in film celebrities and sports stars to endorse govt initiatives to make greater awareness, more penetration of policies even in hinterland, to reach these schemes more closer to common man as in this way people are quickly drawn towards the context of scheme by their role models and they talk about it, follow it and gradually avail themselves of the benefits of the schemes.

Example 1: ‘Do Boond Zindagi ki’

  • Celebrity Brand ambassador: Amitabh Bachchan
  • Product: Government Schemes to eradicate Polio
  • Advertisement Objectives: Campaigns to propagate “do boond zindagi ki”

The Indian government has had a lot of campaigns like ‘Kuposhan Bhagao’ – for eradication of malnutrition, DOTS campaign for Tuberculosis and Polio Free India. But, as and when Amitabh Bachchan came on TV talking about “Do boond zindagi ki” and started creating awareness it was a success. It created an awareness and awakening among the people about the Polio Ravivar – Polio Sunday – campaign. The ad was in all regional languages and key words of the advertisement hammered as reminders “5 saal ke neeche har bachcha har bar” (Any child below 5 years every child every time, for polio drops).This is perhaps one of the best examples of perfect implementation of the celebrity endorsed public awareness ad-campaign.

Example 2: ‘Swachh Bharat campaign’

  • Celebrity Brand ambassador: Vidya Balan
  • Product: Government Schemes for Rural Development and Sanitation.
  • Advertisement Objectives: Campaigns to propagate construction and use of toilets

Actress Vidya Balan became the brand ambassador of sanitation campaign of the government of India and would promote the construction and use of toilet in rural India. The government directs people through advertisements on television to construct toilets in their houses. The ad promotes necessity for proper drinking water and sanitation and spread awareness. The ads are largely focused towards urban India for construction and use of toilets. To grow sanitation habits, hand washing, personal hygiene and managing waste among all.

According to UNICEF-WHO Joint Monitoring Program Report 2010, nearly 60 per cent of India’s 1.1 billion people still practice open defecation and close to 58% of all open defecations in the World is in India. So the celebrity involved in the campaign has a social responsibility through this ad. The concepts of the advertisements are based on rural backdrop.

Example 3 :’Beti Bachao Beti Padhao’

  • Celebrity Brand ambassador: Madhuri Dixit
  • Product: Government Schemes for Girl Child
  • Advertisement Objectives: Prevent gender biased sex selective elimination, ensure survival, protection and education of the Girl Child, improve the Nutrition Status of Girl Child and promote a protective environment for girl child.

This programme was s launched from Panipat in Haryana and Bollywood actress Madhuri Dixit was roped in as the brand ambassador of this campaign. The issue of decline in CSR is complex and the scheme addressed the issue within the broad framework of survival, protection, education of girl children and eradication of female foeticide.

The ad aims to generate awareness and improving the efficiency of welfare services meant for women.

Best answer: Ghalib

Most of the Indians are having role models from sports (mainly Cricket) and film fraternity. Traditionally government promotes its scheme by giving advertisement in newspapers and radio. Now a days, television, ad-banners and social media has become crucial for marketing. Hence, government is doing a positive step by branding schemes through film and sports personalities.

There are many examples, when famous personalities have been part of government initiatives and it resulted positively.

  1. PM Modi appointed 9 ambassador for his “Swachha Bharat” campaign on twitter. The active participation from famous persons resulted into enthusiasm in general public too. There have been many Swacchh Bharat events in societies and cities to promote cleanliness.
  2. Geeta Phogat, Sakshi Malik, Mary Kom have been appointed brand ambassador of various women related programs and they are motivating many young girls in entire nation.
  3. The famous advertisement of Mr. Amitabh Bachchan on Gujarat tourism has attracted many people to visit Gujarat and Kacch festival. Similarly Aamir Khan played positive role in Incredible India campaign.
  4. The promotion of the programs like The polio vaccination (Amitabh Bachchan), toilets in each house (Vidhya Balan) is a major success.

The branding of government initiative will benefit in long run but government needs to ensure to choose the right celebrities to promote the schemes. The celebrities should take this promotion as noble cause to help our nations instead of only for commercial interests.

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