ART and surrogacy
Part of: Prelims and GS-II – Policies and interventions and GS-III – Sci and tech
Context Parliament has passed two bills that aim to regulate in vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics and prohibit commercial surrogacy in India.
- Most of the recommendations of the select committee have been incorporated in the surrogacy bill.
- Objective of the bills: To curb unethical practices pertaining to issues ranging from sex selection to exploitation of surrogate mothers at the hands of prospective parents and agencies.
- Eensuring safe and ethical practice of assisted reproductive technology services for addressing the issues of reproductive health
- The provisions include both monetary penalty as well as jail terms for violations
- The Surrogacy (Regulation) Bill, 2020, proposes to regulate surrogacy in India by establishing a National Surrogacy Board at the central level and state surrogacy boards and appropriate authorities in states and Union territories.
- The Assisted Reproductive Technology (Regulation) Bill, 2021, aims to regulate and supervise assisted reproductive technology clinics and assisted reproductive technology banks, and prevent misuse.
Boom of ART services in India
- In past few years, India has become a centre of the global fertility industry, with reproductive medical tourism becoming a significant activity.
- Clinics in India offer nearly all Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) services—gamete donation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), gestational surrogacy, etc.
- However, There is still no standardisation of protocols and reporting is still very inadequate.