IASbaba's Think and Learn-Mains 2015, Think and Learn, Think and Learn-2015, UPSC, UPSC Mains- Think and Learn-2015
Synopsis and Review – Think and Learn [Day 21]
GS 1) No oil is found in Himalayas even if they are made from Marine sediments. Why is this so? Discuss the factors involved in the making of oil through natural processes.
Today’s Top Answer is written by – Ajulkumar Pandya
Ans) Crude oil is a fossil fuel that was formed from the remains of ancient marine organisms. Millions of years ago, algae and plants lived in shallow seas. After dying and sinking to the seafloor, the organic material mixed with other sediments and was buried.
The amount of pressure and the degree of heat, along with the type of biomass, determined if the material became oil or natural gas. More heat produced lighter oil. Even higher heat or biomass made predominantly of plant material produced natural gas.
Oil and Gas tended to migrate through tiny pores in the surrounding rock. They were caught under impermeable layers of rock or clay where they were trapped. These trapped deposits are where we find oil and natural gas today.
Reasons that Oil is not found in Himalayas:
1. High Tectonic activity decreases formation of source rock
2. Himalayas are formed by Continent – Continent convergence, so rocks founds are Granite or its Metamorphosed form, i.e. Gneiss.
By new geological studies scientist believe that there could be ample amount of oil and gas reserves in Lesser Himalayan basin. Though oil exploration in Himalayas has been not taken seriously, because of rough & tough terrain and biodiversity in the region.
GS 2) The issue of “statelessness” has risen considerably on the agenda of the United Nations, regional institutions, governments and civil society in recent times. Present a critical examination of the problem.
Today’s Top Answer is written by – Sepoy No. 1446
Ans) Statelessness is the condition of not belonging to any nation. It is an involuntary as well as state perpetrated phenomena which is on rise in 21st century. The usual manifestation of statelessness comes in form of refugee problem which attracts wider attention for human rights violation.
Three categories can be identified.
I. Ethnic conflict : Majority drives minority. If state is not strong, the persecution will reach extremity and minority will be forced to leave the state for their survival. Misery awaits in the near future for all these migrants. Example of Rohingya community of Myanmar and erstwhile Tutsi tribe of Rwanda.
II. Historical legacy : Few places are being claimed by multiple actors. As a result some people do not have an internationally accepted nationhood. Example of Palestine people. In this case,people suffer from historical wrongs and not from their own state and people.
III. Controversial state boundaries : issue of enclaves between India and Bangladesh.
Category I needs immediate international attention for the gross human rights violation. United Nations and International media keeps highlighting the issue through various platforms provided. UN conventions on stateless persons(1954 and 1961) provides legal mechanism to address the issue. Regional groups like BRICS,SAARC,ASEAN etc can be more effective here through their collective voice. NGOs and other independent human watch organisations are providing a temporary relief to these homeless people and their contribution can’t be ignored.
GS 3) “Naxalism is the outcome of a number of various factors political and economical in nature.” Examine.
Today’s Top Answer is written by – Coop
Ans) Naxalism is one of the gravest internal security challenge faced by India. Naxal movement was triggered by an incident of police action against tribal insurgents killing villagers at naxalbari(West Bengal) in 1967.
Although this movement was crushed in 72 days, its ideology gained support and due to various political and economical factors the movement mushroomed.
1) Movement was influenced by Chinese communism and Maoism, uprising coincided with the formation of a government in West Bengal led by CPI(M). Thus the movement received increasing official intention and press coverage
2) It was an outcome of the inability of legitimate political authority in India to provide avenues to uplift deprived sections of society.
3) The insensitive nature of political system towards the tribals created an administrative vacuum. This vacuum is where naxals operate taking advantage of people’s discontent towards the administration.
1) Skewed distribution of land was the trigger for the movement
2) Poverty, economic inequality lures the youth to naxalism.
3) Affected area is rich in minerals, setup of industries deprived tribals of their lands. This further marginalized them.
These reasons reinforce the inclusion of constitutional provisions promoting equality and protecting rights of tribals. Also suggest lessons for present and future governments.