IASbaba's Think and Learn-Mains 2015, Think and Learn, Think and Learn-2015, UPSC, UPSC Mains- Think and Learn-2015
Synopsis and Review – Think and Learn [Day 28]
GS 1) Discuss the mechanism by means of which the atmosphere is able to maintain its heat-balance. Is the atmosphere getting progressively hotter, and if so, why? (200 Words, 10 Marks)
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Enticer
Ans) Atmosphere on earth maintains its heat budget leading to maintaining the temperature of the earth leading to survival of various life forms possible.
Mechanism for maintaining heat balance of atmosphere is as follows:
a) Incoming solar radiation is reflected by the clouds present in upper troposphere as well as by albedo due to glaciers . These contribute about nearly 35% of the radiation reflected back.
b)The incoming radiation which is of the short wavelength is absorbed by the atmosphere and this radiation heats the land which is again returned back to atmosphere in the form of terrestrial radiation.
c)Heat transmission in between the atmosphere also takes place between heat excess to heat deficient region by the way of wind movements through the process of convection which is upward movement of air, advection which is horizontal movement of air in upper troposphere.
This heat distribution helps atmosphere in maintaining heat balance.
In recent time there is greater warming of atmosphere is witnessed which is mainly due to the global warming by the trapping of long wave terrestrial radiations reflected by the land by the green house gases like Carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane etc.
These GHGs are mainly emitted by the vehicles, industrial emissions leading to high level of global atmospheric warming and global climatic change harming species as well as creating food security threats.
GS 2) India’s courts are well known for huge pendency of cases. Critically discuss their magnitude, consequences of this problem and remedies to address this issue. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Anshika
Ans) The reason one goes to court is to get Justice, but the lengthy procedures in court and obsolete laws have let the courts in India burdened. The number of pending cases in India are so huge that even if the court sits day in and day out it will take roughly 300 odd years to solve all pending cases.
The causes of these delays are
1) Lack of Judges : The number of judges in courts are extremely less and their is need to increase the number of judges
2)Ferocious Appeals : this has been misused by people in many cases even when their are prime facia evidence of crime
3)The facilities provided are disappointing : Lower court judges are payed a meagre sum also have no proper infrastructure
4)Investigation agency cause delay: The agencies investigating crimes are lethargic
Some of measures which can be taken to increase the efficiency of courts are
1)Increase in number of Judges : The number of judges need to be increased.
2)Increase pay structure and facilities.
3)Power to tribunals: Their should be no question of appeal once a tribunal has passed its orders
4)Use of technology: Digital e courts can be started for fast tracking of certain cases
5)The investigating agency should be made independent so that they report only to court
If the common man need to have his faith back in judiciary it is neccessary his grievances are solved earliest because “Justice delayed is Justice denied”.
GS 3) ‘Man must realize the importance of maximizing agricultural production without destroying the ecological basis on which our entire food production systems rests.’ Explain with examples. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Sepoy No. 1446
Ans) Food security remains one of the pressing problem of the contemporary world. With a population of more than 7 billion,t here is much pressure on limited natural resources to provide for everyone. Not all the measures adopted to enhance agricultural productivity are ecologically compatible.
Measures which had badly affected environment and ecology:
-Use of chemical fertilizers,pesticides and fungicides; causes land and water pollution. The application of DDT led to mass extinction of vultures.
-Process of Bio-magnification, further makes these chemicals dangerous for human beings.
-Building Dams and canals for irrigation; which leads to dislocation of communities, submergence of villages, silting problems and hampers natural flow path of rivers.
-Application of Genetically modified crops; long term sustainability not proven. It might also lead to extinction of traditional crops which otherwise are suitable for local conditions.
-Green revolution in Punjab and Haryana also led to heavy land degradation. Water table in the region has declined to threatening levels due to excessive use of ground water for irrigation purpose.
Above problems make it imperative to choose the corrective measures for long term solution. Organic farming, soil analysis and scientific crop selection, rain water harvesting, farmer awareness, use of ICT technology, crop diversification, crop switching are some of the measures in this direction. These will require government support, both domestic and at international level to bring the effective change.