IASbaba's Think and Learn-Mains 2015, Think and Learn, Think and Learn-2015, UPSC, UPSC Mains- Think and Learn-2015
Synopsis and Review – Think and Learn [Day 29]
GS 1) Despite having negative influence on all aspects of India’s national life, the British has also left behind few positive developments for India to consolidate and build a new nation-state upon these developments. Examine the positive legacy of the British and their impact on post – Independent India. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
The Top Answer to this question is written by – Nishant
Ans) For 200 years of exploitation and oppression, the British also left behind some positive developments. Their impact can be studied under –
– A well-developed railway network across India. Immediately after independence, India could setup heavy industries because of this reason.
– Telegraph and postal system – post offices till today form the backbone of rural communications and other activities.
– From Cornwallis Code in 1793 to setting up High Courts in governor presidencies, the British gave India a strong judicial system.
– Established a formal police force as separate from administration.
– Civil Services started by the British are the bedrock of Indian bureaucracy
– A Constitutional framework through Act of 1935 upon which the Constituent Assembly could build a robust Indian Constitution.
Social and Academic
– Reforms like Abolition of Sati, Widow Remarriage , Women Education changed the face of Indian society forever.
– Introduced modern and scientific education in English medium and setup universities throughout India.
The demand for English speaking Indian labor in western countries is a testimony to the same.
– British brought Indian Culture, Arts and Architecture out of oblivion by setting up the Asiatic Society of Bengal and Archaeological Survey of India.
Above all, uniting entire India, they imparted principles of democracy and responsible governance which forms the core of our political system today.
GS 2) Write a note on the Government of India’s recently launched ‘Mission Indradhanush’ programme. Also, critically evaluate how successful have been similar programs in the past. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
The Top Answer to this question is written by – Anshika
Ans) Mission Indradhanush was launched in 2014 to achieve complete vaccination to children who are eihter partially vaccinated or unvaccinated . Mission Indradhanush will provide protection against 7 life threatening diseases like diptheria, whooping cough, tuberculosis, tetanus, measles, polio, HepatitisB. In addition vaccines will be provided for Japanese Encyphylatis and haemophalis Influenza in selected districts of country. Vaccination against tetanus will be provided to pregnant women as well.
The aim is to achieve complete immunisation by year 2020.
Mission Indradhanush was not first programme to try for complete immunisation. Several programmes were launched before
1) Immunisation programme in India was introduced in 1978 as Expanded program of immunisation and was universalised in 1985 as Universal Immunisation programme. The program provided vaccine against 6 preventable diseases.
2)Polio irradication Programme in 1995-96 under which National immunisation programme and an acute surviellance of flacid paralysis took place.
The UIP programme was only partially successful but Polio Eradication programme has been a success and due to coordinated efforts India has been declared polio free now.
To make Mission indradhanush successful, the reasons for failure of UIP that is lack of awareness, lack of coldstorage to store medicines, lack of training need to be improved with proper awareness, surviellance and monitoring and cold store management facilities for vaccines need to be improved also the lessons from polio irradication drive need to be implemented here as well.
In order to make Indradhanush successful India has sort help of WHO, UNICEF and Rotary clubs.
GS 3) Critically analyse the trend of institutional subsidy in agricultural sector and its effect on farmers and farming in India. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
The Top Answer to this question is written by – Enticer
Ans) For growth in agricultural production Indian government has provided institutional subsidies, their positive impact are as follows :
a) Fertilizer subsidy: This subsidy helps farmers in procuring NPK fertilizers at affordable cost which is used to increase productivity of land.
b) Power subsidy : It is being provided so that electricity will be available at subsidized cost so that farmers can use borewells, tubewells for irrigation and carrying out other mechanized farm activities.
c) Minimum support price : This helps farmer in gaining adequate amount for their harvest even if the market prices are low for the crop. Government bears the extra cost.
d) Credit and financing: Being a priority sector they get loans at cheap rates. NABARD plays an active role in agricultural financing.
These approaches ensured food security and helped in increasing farm incomes and improvement in socio-economic status of farmers.
But this has also led to some problems like subsidies are mainly benefiting the rich farmers and they are growing with rising inequality between rich and the deprived farmers.
Overuse of chemical fertilisers and underground water for irrigation has led to degradation of land and water.
Subsidies are also prone to not reaching the intended beneficiaries leading to subsidy leakages.
Direct subsidy transfer has been adopted to prevent leakage and there is a need to prevent overuse of chemical fertilizers and promoting organic fertilizers by providing subsidy in that.