Performing Art – Puppetry that tells stories of Santhal way of life and migration
|Terai region of himalayas
Painting – Similar to Warli but larger and elongated. Natural colors are used
Martial art – One of the oldest fighting systems in existence
Martial art – Weapon based martial art. Uses animal movements of tiger, snake, eagle forms and foot work patterns plays an important role;
Martial art – Sword and shield fighting. Techniques are also used in chau dance
Sculpture – Made from soft Poniki wood – light, flexible and strong.
made piece by piece and are stuck together using an adhesive paste made of tamarind seeds, followed with a coating of lime glue.
traditional craft that is protected as a geographical indication (GI) under the World Trade Organisation.
Natural dyes are used to colour the toys and are blended with lac to make lac sticks which are then applied to the finished wooden objects. This age old traditional art dates back to the reign of Tipu Sultan who is said to have invited Persian artists to teach his artisans the craft.
A male-female/raja-rani dolls usually gifted to bride in marriage. Made from kongu trees.
known for their intricate carvings and the elaborate attires that people dress them in.
Made in Tirupati
Included in the Government of India Geographical Indications Registry, the dancing dolls made of wood pulp or papiermaché or clay. They are called so because of their bobbing head and body, that are made separately and balanced such that the parts oscillate.
|In towns of Malda and Murshidabad
Matka is an Indian term for rough handloom silk fabric made from very thick yarns spun out of pierced cocoon in the weft and organzine in warp. The yarns are obtained from short ends of silk from Mulberry silkworms (Bombyxmori) and spun by hand without removing the gum (sericin)
Handicrafts – needle work with beads or muthai and chain stitch; inspired by the floral motifs of Mughal period
Kutch, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Delhi
Weaving -It is a hand woven saree using richly dyed silk, with intricate motifs depicting Indian mythology woven onto its large ‘pallu’.
Baluchar, Murshidabad, West Bengal
|Lavani / Tamasha
|Dhangars or shepherds of Sholapur
Maharashtrian folk including song and dance
|Maharashtra and konkan coast.
The dance form consists of swirling, graceful movements that make this dance a treat to behold. Women dance while men provide music for the performance.
Kalbelia dance and songs are a part of UNESCO’s representative list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
It involves tricky balancing acts, right from balancing seven to nine brass pots on the head to balancing oneself (along with the pots) on narrow and unstable objects like a glass bottle, brass plate or the edge of a sword. The brass pots can, and are often, substituted by an even greater number of earthen pots.
Harvest dance – energetic and rhythmic – performed by both men and women
Dance using bright colored bamboo sticks where participants strike the bamboo sticks in rhythmic fashion. Dancers go round a drummer usually at the centre of the stage
Dance form also originated in Gujarat but uses hand and feet movement; traditionally performed around a holy lamp
Performed only by women in Punjab. Female counterpart to Bhangra
A traditionally passed folk dance of Mewar of Rajasthan includes rhythmic swirling. Women’s dance performed in women gatherings.
Women’s dance form depicting collecting of water. Women dance by balancing brass pots which are kept ignited with the cotton seeds dipped in oil
A dance drama performed by both men and women. Usually performed by troupes which travel from one village to another
World famous wooden puppetry of Rajasthan. Wooden puppets are controlled by metal strings
Made of single piece of wood and are colorfully dressed
Worship of baba ramdev. Bhajans are sung during the performance
Prototype for ghoomar. Performed by women
|SutaKhandeiNacha / Kundhei
String puppet show from Ganjam
Strings are attached to a triangular wooden prop
Costumes are similar to Jatra performances.
Puppets have no legs and have long skirts
Have more joints and are therefore more versatile, articulate and easy to manipulate
Baunsarani literally means “The Bamboo Queen”. Mainly little girls exhibit various acrobatic postures on the crossed bamboo bar as well as on the floor with exquisite scintillating movement synchronized with the beat of drums and songs.
Dance form of Chintoormandal, east Godavari district
Performed by girls during Dree festival
Performed by priests. Famous in Kurnool. Influenced by shaivism
Needlework – White thread is embroidered on cool, pastel shades of light muslin and cotton garments. Fabric is usually thin else the needle would not pierce. Geographic indication provided in 2008
|Believed to have been introduced by Jats but practiced by Punjabi women
Needle work -use of darn stitch on the wrong side of coarse cotton cloth with coloured silken thread. Punjabi women created innumerable alluring and interesting designs and patterns by their skilful manipulation of the darn stitch.
Bagh – Work covering the entire fabric
Adhabagh – scattered work all along the fabric
Needle work – Running stitch all along the cloth.
|Birbhum, West Bengal
Intricate tie and dye process where the yarn is dyed before weaving. Also called double ikat
PatanPatolaof Gujarat has GI
|Originally in Gujarat, also famous in Odisha
Needlework – Kashmiri embroidery – It draws inspiration from nature. Birds, blossoms and flowers, creepers, chinar leaves, ghobi, mangoes, lotus, and trees are the most common themes.
Believed to be brought to Karnataka by the Lambani tribe followed by women courtiers of Mysore dynasty.
involves embroidering very intricate patterns like gopura, chariot, palanquin, lamps and conch shells on traditional silk and Ilkal sarees.
The work is laborious and involves counting of each thread on the cloth. The patterns are stitched without using knots to ensure that both sides of the cloth look alike.
Jamdani is a fine muslin cloth on which decorative motifs are woven on the loom, typically in grey and white. Often a mixture of cotton and gold thread were/was used.
Traditionally woven in Dhaka, Bangladesh
Venkatagiri in Andhra Pradesh is famous for this form of weaving
In news as PM Narendra Modi presented a tapestry depicting Kamadhenu and Kalpavriksha to Bangladesh PM Sheikh Hasina
|Venkatagiri, Andhra Pradesh
|Artists known as chitrakaras with title Mohapatra or Maharana
Painting – cloth based scroll painting.
Woman members prepare the glue, the canvas and apply colours what we call the fill-in, and give the final lacquer coating. The master hand, mostly the male member, draws the initial line and gives the final finishing. Patta paintings are done on small strips of cotton cloth
Simple painting form developed around Kalighat under British patronage by artists called patuas
Uses water colors
Painted with bright colors on clear background
|Mithila / Madhubani
pictures using vegetable colour and a few earthen colours
Finished in black lines on cow dung treated with paper
Mostly depicts Hindu mythology
Marks seasonal festivals and life events
Intricate flora, animal and bird motifs are used to fill the gap
Passed on from mother to daughter
|Mithila of Bihar
Colors – Vegetable dyes, plant roots, leaves, salt of iron, tin, copper, alum
Gets the name from “kalam” – pen as intricate designs are made using pen
Includes Hand painting as well as block painting
Patronised by Vijayanagar kingdom
Legacy from father to son
Scenes from mythology are usually depicted with floral decorative patterns for embellishments
Influence of Persian motifs and designs
Scroll painting of Bhilwara district
Themes include heroic figures, rural life, animals and birds
2D depiction in Bold lines
Art form is approximately 700 years old
|Gond and Kol
|Made mostly by women
Geometric patterns like circles, triangles, rectangles
White color/ rice flour is used on dark background
|Sonar or Sohail caste of Kshatriyas
Jewellery designing using enamel work
Art of coloring and ornamenting the surface of metals by fusing over it brilliant colors that are decorated in an intricate design
Gulab mina is famous in Benaras
|Started by Khatri, a kshatriyacommunity in Gujarat
|Tie and dye art for cotton fabrics
Called Chungidiin Tamilnadu
|Persian art brought to India by Bahamani rulers
Metal art – striking inlay artwork,
important export handicraft of India
prized as a symbol of wealth.
The metal used is a blackened alloy of zinc and copper inlaid with thin sheets of pure silver. This native art form has obtained GI
|Idu Mishmi tribe
meaning ‘dance of the Priest’, a unique ritual dance.
Igu dance is performed on Reh festival, different ritual acts etc with an aim of appeasing various spirits for family and social well-being and prosperity.
Arunachal Pradesh’s tableau for RD parade 2015
Kahaiya and Dholki – the percussion instruments besides short shehnai are used in the dance.
The men hold their arms round the women’s shoulders and women clasp the men by their waists forming circular formations moving in clockwise and anti-clockwise directions.
The women climb on the shoulders of men and form a human pyramid.
Performed in RD parade and won first position in 2015
Named after a wooden idiophone to which thin metal discs are fitted which produce a jingling sound and the dancers use this while dancing.
Dholki, a drum instrument is used as the main percussion music.
Very rigorous movements
Folk singing style neither accepted as Raga nor reckoned among freely rendered folk songs
a boat song, sung by boatmen while going down streams of the river,
the word Bhatiyali comes from Bhata meaning ebb or downstream
|Folk song form
|Folk song form
popular ritual form of worship of North Malabar in Kerala
Colourful costumes and awe inspiring head gears with strong colours of turmeric,wax and arac
Head gears are upto 5 -6 feet high
|Tinta subsect of Ganaka community
Performance using masks
In honour of bhadrakali
Performed in bhagavati temples – southern variant of theyyam
blends music, dance, theatre, satire, facial masks, and paintings
|Koli – a fishermen tribe
Includes both men and women. Men dance with fishing oars
Only the men folk perform this dance on specific occasions and at set locations.
Generally performed with wearing long colourful robes and tall conical caps, studded with beads and shells.
|Jammu and Kashmir
Martial art – consists of 2 forms
Thang ta – armed version – uses sword, spear, axe and shield
Saritsarak – unarmed version – uses kicks, hand strikes and grappling
Closely associated with Burmese Bando or bandshay
Folk song – flourished in Braj
Praises of Lord Krishna’s charming leelas
Ballad of Bundelkhand
Heroic stories of Alha and Udal who served Raja Parmal of Majoba
Highlights the moral principles of morality, chivalry and nobility
Songs based on love pranks of Radha-Krishna
Sang during Holi celebrations only
Songs sung during the birth of male child
Influenced the Muslim families and the tradition is now found among Muslims too
Depicts the mingling of two cultures
Sung by women in rainy season on third day of bhadra
Associated with a dance involving steps in semi circular motion
Prayers for good health and long life during religious and auspicious occasions of child-birth, baby-showers, ganeshpooja etc.
Sung only by women without any instrument
Songs depicting twelve months of the year
Different natural entities represent different months of the year
Spring/ Harvest song which accompanies the celebrations of Basant Panchami
Sung by women of hilly areas when they go to forests to collect grass for cattle
Emphasis on importance of labour along with entertainment
Literally means lover
Sung by peasants working in fields
Sung by women during the festival of Lotia
Sung during the festival of Teej on third day after new moon in the month of sharavana
Songs revolve around union of Shiva and Parvati
Songs on tales of Mahabharata
Singer assumes all the characters during the ballad accompanying it with his powerful singing
Portrays the picture of common folk
Associated with story of Shukra who calls off his marriage for the sake of his mother
Slow verse and refrain composition dealing with love, tragedy and both social injustice and political resistance during Porutguese presence
Group song performed using musical instruments like noot, rababs, sarangi, tumbaknari
Regional music with most melodic and harmonious elements
A group performance where girls singing on peak of the hill seldom see the group of boys who give a reply to them in a song seated on another peak of the hill.
Semi classical vocal music inspired by camel riders
Characterised by jumpy and flashy tonal movements
Literally means “narration of story in glorious terms”
Odes in praise of individual heroes, incidents or place
Chief narrator is known as Shahir
Originally sung in praise of god
Brought from Persia
Qawwali performance presents a fascinating, interchanging use of solo and choral modalities
Highly dramatic form of ballad
Singer plays a tambura while reciting the story
A famous exponent of the form DarojiEeramma passed away in august 2014
Name is derived from a unique instrument called “kathi” or “Ram thali” or wooden clappers
It is a form of worship and offering on behalf of “das”, the devotee
Sung by a priest at the time of coronation of King or to welcome the King
Also sung to evoke the spirit of Pakhangba, the presiding deity
Mizos are known as singing tribe
SaikutiZai are songs composed by a poetess Saikuti in praise of warriors
The songs that accompany chai dance performed during ChapcharKut Festival
Lead singer handles an instrument which is bow shaped
Themes are usually theological and emphasise conquest of good over evil
Song sung in praise of Chola Monarch
Ammanai is wooden ball.
Women folk sing appropriate songs while playing the ball.
Unique combination of dance, music and acting.
Satire, wit and parody are preferred for inducing laughter
Theatre form known for softness of emotions and accomplishment of rasa
Language in Rohtak – Haryanvi
Language in Haatras – Brajbhasha
|Rohtak and Haatras
Traditional theatre form of Kanpur, Lucknow and Haatras
Initially performed by men only. Now women are also included
Gulab Bai of Kanpur gave new dimension to old theatrical form
Theatrical performance which is partly entertainment and partly a ritual offering made to Goddess Amba.
Subtle social criticism laced with pungent humour is the speciality of Bhavai.
P.S. : a dance form of Rajasthan is also called Bhavai
Musical plays during fairs in honour of gods, or religious rituals and ceremonies
Born and nurtured in Bengal
Krishna Jatra was popularised by Bhakti saint Chaitanya’s influence
Used for both stage and the performance
Traditional theatre form with songs in between dialogues
Dialogues are called bol
Rhyme in narration is called vanag
Tunes are called Rangat
Performance of Assamese classical plays called AnkiaNaat
Sutradhar or narrator begins the story in Sanskrit and the play continues in Brajboli or Assamese
Performers personify the ten incarnations of Lord Vishnu wearing masks of wood or papiermache
|Konkan coast and Goa
Started in 17th Century AD under the patronage of King Manavada of Calicut
Cycle of 8 plays performed for eight consecutive days
Performed in the month of vrischika (November – December) in the Kali temples as an oblation to Goddess
Oldest traditional theatre form of Kerala
Believed to be the prototype for Kathakali
Based on Sanskrit theatre traditions
Vidushak alone delivers dialogues
Emphasis on hand gestures and eye movements
Theatre form based on mythological stories known for its costumes and make up
Literally means street play
Performed at annual temple festivals of Mariamman(Rain Goddess) to achieve rich harvest
Cycle of eight plays based on life of Draupadi
String puppets(marionettes) styled and designed like characters of Yakshagana
Have joints at legs, shoulders, elbows, hips and knees
Puppets are manipulated by 5-7 strings tied to a prop. Sometimes more complicated movements are manipulated by two or more puppeteers
Largest, heaviest and most articulate of all traditional Indian marionettes.
Combine techniques of both rod and string puppets
Puppets made of wood
Strings for manipulation are attached to iron ring worn round the puppeteer’s head
Literally togalu – skin/leather bombe – dolls
Shadow puppets made from treated leather
Small in size and size varies with social status of characters the puppets portray – Larger for kings and smaller for common people and servants
Large in size with jointed waist, shoulders, elbows and knees
Colored on both sides. Hence throw colored shadows on screen
Shadow puppets of one piece and have no joints
Not colored – hence opaque shadows
Puppets are made of deer skin
Props such as trees, mountains, chariots etc are also displayed along with main characters
Rod puppets made from wood – inspired by Bunrakupuppets of Japan
Costumed like actors of Jatra and usually have 3 joints
A bamboo made hub is tied to the waist of puppeteer on which rod holding the puppet is placed.
Puppeteers manipulating the rods, move and dance imparting corresponding movements to the puppets
Rod puppets made of wood
Have no joints and are made of a single piece
Glove puppets costumed as kathakali performers
Height varies from 1-2 feet
Head and arms are carved of wood and joined together with thick cloth, cut and stitched into a bag