IASbaba's Think and Learn-Mains 2015, Think and Learn, Think and Learn-2015, UPSC, UPSC Mains- Think and Learn-2015
Synopsis and Review – Think and Learn [Day 40]
GS 1) Sangam Literature is regarded as a source of the history of kings, kingdoms and culture of the period during which it was created. Discuss (200 Words, 10 Marks)
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Adityaka
Ans) The Sangam age roughly lasted between the second century BC and fourth century AD. It owes its name to the literary councils that were held in Pandyan capital city of Madhurai, where there was an explosion in Tamil literature. Broadly speaking, there were 3 Sangams. The literature that was produced is a major source of early deep south history.
The Sangam polity consisted mainly of 3 kingdoms. The Pandyas, the Cheras and the Cholas. The Chera king Senguttuvan was their greatest king and started the Pattini cult, as referenced to in the Tamil epic Silappadigaram. The Cholas were known for their vast trade in spices and textiles. In fact, Aricamedu was a thriving port city with trade connectivity with the Roman Empire. The Chera port city of Muziris also shows evidence of Roman connections. The Sangam literature records vibrant economic activity via trade with Yavnapriya/pepper being the major export
As evidenced by the epics of Manimegalai and Silappadigaram, women played a very strong role in society. As a result of this they were worshipped. Kannagi has a temple dedicated to her that stands to this day in the Periyar Tiger reserve. The literature had secular themes as well. Some of them were dedicated to love, some to governance and polity.
All in all, the richness and vibrant nature of the literature speaks volumes of the intellectual peaks reached by the human being in that age and place.
GS 2) What legal initiatives must the states take to improve the higher education sector in the country? (200 Words, 10 Marks)
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Samit
Ans) In India, Higher Education starts after Secondary Education i.e after Class 12. Although there are enough Legal provisions to make primary education a responsibility of both State and Parents e.g RTE is applicable till Age 14, yet it is not the case for Higher Education. At a point when the population is highest ever for 15-24 age group, It becomes very important to focus on Higher Education as well. The following legal initiatives can be taken :
— University for Research and Innovation Bill : Enables Govt to set up institutes of Higher Education of National Importance via Notification instead of Acts. This will speed up the formation of New institutions to cater to the increase in Demand.
— Foreign Education Institution Bill :To Facilitate the entry of Foreign institutions in India =>Increase competition among Institutes.
— Educational Tribunal Bill: To Provide legal platform to all stakeholders in dealing with Educational Disputes.
— Accreditation for Higher Education Bill :Ensures the quality check of institutions of higher education by independent regulator.
— National Academic Depository Bill : To Provide a common national online database for all academic awards.
— Amendments to IIT,IIM,NIT,etc Act: To bring more autonomy, innovation.
All above mentioned bills have been in the table for 5 or more years, but there has been lack of political will to make them statutes. Even after making statutory, Implementation and sustainability of quality of institutions is more important. This will not only make Indian students competitive in the Global Level, but also it will contribute towards socio-economic development of the nation.
GS 3) It is said that most industrial projects in India, which are either stalled or cancelled, is due to land acquisition problem in India. Do you agree with this assessment? Critically examine. (200 Words, 10 Marks)
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – L.I.
Ans) As per the Economic Survey 2014-15, there are around 800 stalled projects both in private and public sectors. Reasons for which have been due to lack of demands, funds and fuel, overleveraged firms, environmental clearances, land acquisition problems.
As regards the land acquisition, it has been a tussle between the companies, internal politics and the land owners/farmers. The Land Acquisition Act of 2013 never actually came into play nor did the Ordinances do any justice. The amendment act has been criticized for its exclusion of the Consent clause and Social Impact Assessment mainly, which was again restored recently by the Government.
Interestingly, it has been found that stalled projects due to land acquisition accounts for around 8% of the total projects only, out of which most projects are concentrated in cities for buildings like malls, golf courses, resorts etc. although, this does not mean lesser implication on rural populace. Nevertheless, it is the economy in general and other combination of factors that have led to stalled projects.
Only with the final formulation of the Land Act and its implementation, it can be observed how well it enhances investments and carry forward the projects smoothly.