3. Compare and contrast the population policies of India and China. Evaluate their suitability and effectiveness. (25 marks)
Directives: This is an easy question. It requires an analysis of how the population policies of India and China has evolved in the past few decades. Earlier neither China nor India had a population policy. It was only when the population exploded owing to high CBR and TFR, they adopted population policies to control their populations. While China adopted one child policy, India followed the sterilization path. Later on course correction was done by both the countries as China embarked on a high growth trajectory giving way to socio-cultural transformations that changed the fertility regime of Chinese women and India focused more upon family planning through literacy, access to contraceptives, awareness campaigns, incentives etc.
Notice that the question is also asking about the suitability of these population policies. It required a reasoned analysis as to why these policies were adopted and not any other. Of course, the angles of level of development and stage of demographic transition along with political set up would come to play its role.
Needless to say about the effects. While India did control its NIR, it is still high. On the other hand China was more successful in moving towards a sustainable replacement rate.
4. Overpopulation in itself has little role in the problem of food insecurity. Critically comment. (25 marks)
Directives: Food security comprises the following: accessibility, affordability and sustainability. Anything that disrupts any of these components would pose a threat to food security.
You were required to first cite examples wherein there is no positive correlation between overpopulation and food insecurity. Basically it required you you to critique the Malthusian theory.
Then you were supposed to present a comprehensive list of factors other than overpopulation responsible for food insecurity. These factors could be: unfavourable physiography and climate inhibiting food production, poverty and agrarian distress, civil strife and wars, inefficient public distribution system or its absence and so on.
5. Establish the relation between overpopulation and the menace of drug resistance in India. (15 marks)
Directives: All of you knew this question but very few actually incorporated both the dimensions i.e. drug resistance due to high and indiscriminate antibiotic use and excessive pesticide/ insecticide application. The causative link is simple as all of you know that it is difficult to control the use of antibiotics and pesticides/ insecticides in areas of high population growth. Mutations and other modifications improve the resistance of strains.