Q.1) “The rise of Arya Samaj may quite logically be pronounced as the outcomes of conditions imported into India by the West.” Evaluate.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Indushree
Ans) Arya Samaj was necessarily a Hindu revivalist movement of 19th century. While it accepted a few progressive western ideas, it opposed the foreign nature of British rule and their cultural dominance.
1. As a revolt against intrusion of colonial culture and ideology, Arya Samaj chose to revive traditional culture with Vedic knowledge as its foundation.
2. Opposing the foreign rule, Arya Samaj called for “Aryavartha for Aryans”.
3. Christian missionaries used education and healthcare to encourage conversion. Recognising this, Dayanand Anglo Vernacular schools were started to promote western scientific education.
4. In retaliation to proselytising activities of Christians and Muslims, Arya Samaj launched Shuddhi Movement. This reconversion movement also sowed the seeds of communalism.
5. The awakening lead by Western rationalism necessitated a relook into Indian society. Arya Samaj opposed social evils like polytheism, idolatry, caste system, untouchability and superstitions. But, it sought to revive varna system based on occupation as prevalent in Vedic times.
6. Also, progressive ideas like equality to women, widow remarriage, intercaste marriages, universal brotherhood which found their way into Arya Samaj were influenced by western ideas of liberty, equality and fraternity.
Arya Samaj incorporated the best ideas from past and West to reform Indian society. But, its over-zealous attempt to protect Hindu society led to revival of communalism too.?
Q.2) “The Charter Act of 1833 rung own the curtain on the company’s trade and introduced a new concept of government in India.” Substantiate.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Santosh Gupta
Ans) After stopping the commercial activity of EIC by asking it to close its trade entirely in India, the charter Act of 1833 made provisions for introduction of new concept of government of India, through:
Centralisation of power: The Governor General of Bengal was made the Governor General of British India and all financial and administrative powers were centralized in the hands of Governor General-in-Council. He could repeal, amend or alter any laws or regulations in any part of British territory in India.
Concept of Acts: The Act provided that all laws made in India were to be laid before the parliament and be known as Acts.
Establishment of Indian Law Commission: To codifying the laws, the GG-in-Council was directed to set up an Indian law Commission to inquire into the Jurisdiction, powers and rules of the courts, judicial procedure, nature and operation of all kinds of laws.
Indians in Administration: The Act provisioned to admit the natives of India to share administration in the country.
Social Measures: The Act directed the GG-in-Council to give due consideration to personal laws and work towards mitigation of the state of slavery.
Thus, the Act changed a commercial body to administrative setup and laid the initial foundation for introduction of colonial government in India.
Q.3) “The tribals revolted more often and far more violently than any other community including peasants in India.” Enumerate the causes and consequences of all these intense tribal revolts.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Razm
Ans) Tribal revolts even with their local in character were much violent and traditional in nature. Their general causes and aftereffects of those revolts are enumerated below.
1. Famine and economic hardships because of higher land revenue were the major reasons for uprisings such as Sanyasi revolt , Chuar uprisings, Bhil uprisings etc.
2. Excessive land transfers, external interferences etc sowed the seeds of Kol Mutiny, Santhal uprisings, Khasi uprisings etc.
3. Ramosis revolted against the imposition of British pattern of administration.
4. British efforts to end the practice of human sacrifice aroused the feelings of Kandhs.
5. New restrictive forest rights imposed resulted in Rampa rebellion.
1. Colonial authorities in general recognized the tribal autonomy and thereafter interference were minimal from the British side in 20th century
2. Many tribal rights were recognized in principle
3. In totality these rebellions were able to set the tradition of local resistance to authoritarianism and hence can be considered as a precursor to all the later organized struggles against the empire.
Although the tribal uprisings were massive they were often localized and isolated and were for local grievances. Hence their resistance wasn’t powerful enough to represent a social alternative.
Q.4) Examine the major factors shaping the British Land-Revenue Policy in India. How did it affect the Indian society?
The Top Answer for this question is written by – BS
Ans) British Land revenue system was essentially based on “Mercantilism policy”. EIC collected tax to finance its exports of raw material to British without requiring gold, silver.
The major aims of land-revenue system were: maximum revenue, continued supply of raw material, making market for British goods and ultimately continuation of British rule.
EIC used the old tax system and local zamindars, jagirdars were assigned the task as they were accustomed to the prevailing tax system.
Three types of systems:
1. Permanent settlement: Tax was to be collected by zamindars and revenuewas fixed
2. Ryotwari: Government to collect tax and the land-revenue system was flexible
3. Mahalwari System: Taxation was imposed on village community
Consequence on society and culture:
Class society: Divided society into different classes: zamindar, tenant, share-cropper etc. This also introduced many oppressive practices: beggar, forced labor
Impact on agriculture: made Indian agriculture mono-cultural, only cash crops were cultivated, earlier practice of cultivating food, fodder, and fuel alongside disappeared.
Cash economy: As they had to pay revenue in cash and not in kind unlike earlier. This led to money lending.
Village culture: practice of common land, co-operative relations destroyed and led to problems like land fragmentation, competition based village, low scale production and food insecurity. Self-sufficient villages became dependant on British goods, law and justice system.
Q.5) Examine the main aspects of Muslim League politics from 1937 to 1947. Was the partition of the country unavoidable?
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Sepoy No 1446
Ans) Muslim league intensified its demand for Pakistan in last leg of Indian National movement.From 1937 to 1947,three different trends can be observed:
1937 to 1942:This was characterized by consolidation of two nation theory.This was comparatively a calm period in terms of violence and direct clashes.By 1940,the idea of Pakistan has almost taken shape.Next few years were spent in its active pursuance,using both violence and politics.
1942 to 1946:ML and Congress engaged over Cripps mission,Cabinet mission,Wavell plan etc where ML claimed itself to be the sole representative of Muslims of India.This had a major bearing during negotiation process and almost all missions came to a halt.On field level,incipient form of communal clashes were brewing.
1946 to 1947:This was marked by violent confrontation.Congress’s frustration with league’s non-cooperation in interim cabinet and ML’s call for “direct action” were major events.Political talks almost broke down which ultimately led to Partition.
1937-1947 era made partition unavoidable.Congress refusal to share power with ML in united provinces was the turning point.By mid-40’s ML had become “annoyingly adamant”.Communal clashes had halted general life,led to breakdown of law and machinery,people’s morals were down and leaders had lost energy.British were also in a hurry.All these made partition a necessary evil.