TLP: Post-Independence India upto 1991 – GS 2 [DAY 15]
Q.1) Jawaharlal Nehru was the architect of India’s Policy of Non-Alignment. In light of the statement analyze India’s relations with the two “Power Blocs” between 1947-1964.
The main crux of the question is the relationship of India with the two power blocs, with the background of NAM. That is all. Do give various dimensions to it, you would get good marks.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Ramdas
Ans) India’s relations with two power blocs during 1947-64 can be analysed on the basis of following factors –
1. Strategic autonomy of Indian foreign policy
– This was maintained through neutrality towards both the groups despite the immense pressure to join.
– India resisted temptation of joining any military alliance despite Pakistan joining the western bloc.
2. Role of India as mediator and bulwark of peace between two blocs
– Due to India’s neutral stance and high moral ground, both blocs looked up to it whenever tensions ran high.
– India mediated in Korean war.
3. Opposition to colonialism
– India strongly supported freedom movements in Asia and Africa against the formerly colonial powers UK, France which were part of western bloc.
– India opposed the British policy of Suez intervention, USA’s Phillipines policy, France’s Vietnam policy.
– However, Hungary fiasco blemished India’s record.
4. Policy of cooperation
– Being newly independent country, India maintained cooperation with both the blocs as it was imperative to solve the challenges before the nation.
– It received aid from both the blocs.
5. Respect for international law and UN
– Despite unfavourable resolution of Kashmir in 1949 due to the hegemony of western bloc, India decided to respect it.
It was a delicate balancing act template which is relevant even today.
Q.2) With great skill and masterful diplomacy and using both persuasion and pressure, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel succeeded in integrating hundreds of princely states with the Indian Union. Discuss.
This is an oft-repeated question, and dont forget to include V.P Menon and give names of the important states which made trouble.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Santhosh Venkatesh
Ans) Sardar Patel’s role in the integration of princely states was in some ways similar to Bismarck of Germany.
After Independence the Princely states were given a choice to join either of two dominions of India and Pakistan. Sardar Patel was not in favour of forced annexation as communal violence was possible. Hence as a first step he used diplomacy and appealed to the patriotic feeling of princely states rulers’ .He asked them to join the Indian dominion by signing the Instrument of Accession in the matters of defence, communication and external affairs which were area that fell under paramountcy of crown. To ensure their continued cooperation each ruler was offered a Privy Purse.
Although Sardar Patel was the prime force behind the integration of princely states the role of VP Menon secretary of Ministry of states and Lord Mountbatten cannot be undermined. While Mountbatten used the two nation theory itself to get Jaisalmer and Jodhpur acceded to India, VP Menon aided Patel in integration of Junagadh, Kashmir and Hyderabad. In Junagadh, Hyderabad and Kashmir plebiscite, Military action and Instrument of accession were used respectively to integrate these princely states to India.
Hence Sardar Patel along with VP Menon and Lord Mountbatten made use of ground realities, diplomacy and timely intervention by force to integrate hundreds of princely states in a timely manner.
Q.3) The ‘Temples of Modern India’ consisted not only of steel and power plants, irrigation canals and dams, but also included institutions of higher learning, especially in the scientific field. Elaborate.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Nishant
Ans) Immediately after independence, India was a chaos. There was virtually no industry in steel and power considered the lifeline of any nation. Agriculture was inefficient and productivity inadequate. Literacy was a mere 12%. With this backdrop, Jawaharlal Nehru went about building the “temples” of modern India.
The ‘Maharatna’ PSUs covered the trinity of coal, power and steel and provided large scale employment
Massive dams added to India’s deficient power infrastructure. Canals ensured irrigation to drylands.
Institutes of higher learning established after independence form the third type of “temples”. Their significance is often understated. They were setup to improve India’s poor literacy numbers and make the country self-reliant in SnT in long run. Nehru realized very early that India’s socio-economic development was impossible without providing a solid foundation for education, research and advanced learning. A skilled labor was critical for India to move from primary to secondary and tertiary activities.
IITs, IIMs, central universities produced an enviable class of researchers, engineers, doctors and policy makers now known world over. The present service sector in India owes a lot to these institutes.
Through advanced research organizations like IISc, BARC, and DRDO India made rapid strides in the field of Science as well. Recent success of ISRO in space technology fully proves this point.
Q.4) Discuss the objectives of Bhoodan and Gramdan movements initiated by Acharya Vinobha Bhave. How far these movements could succeed?
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Annapurna Garg
Ans) Bhoodan and gramdan movement hold a significant place in the history of land reforms. These were initiated by Acharya Vinobha Bhave based on the Gandhian principles of trusteeship. The main objective of these movements were:
Land reforms through movement rather than legislation
Social transformation by creating a sense of social responsibility.
The movement first began as bhoodan movement and later took the form of gramdan movement. Initially the movement was highly successful and received land in considerable numbers. However, very soon it lost its momentum. Moreover, the land which was received was of poor quality unfit to be cultivated. It’s usefulness was limited to those villages which had not developed class differentiation.
Despite these shortcomings, following can be said to be the success of these movements:
It was first movement which aimed at land reforms through social means than legislation.
Trusteeship model used was a creative idea in attempting land reforms.
Rather than tangible outcomes, it have country a positive atmosphere towards this pressing issue of land.
Thus, these movements, despite failure in achieving actual land reforms, gave much intangible benefits to India.
Q.5) Write a critical note on the evolution and significance of the slogan “Jai Jawan Jai Kisan”.
The “criticality” of this question had its basis in the OROP and farmer suicides issue. So we made this question with that background, and anyone who can integrate Current Affairs with History would surely get outstanding marks.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Ramdas
Ans) This slogan rightly demonstrates the importance of armed forces and agriculture to the national security of our nation.
This slogan was first coined by our 2nd PM Lal Bahadur Shashtri during 1965.
Reasons were two fold.
After suffering debacle from China in 1962, their morale had suffered. PM’s slogan motivated them to prepare for 1965 war against Pakistan.
The country was suffering from prolonged droughts and severe foodgrain shortage. This created dependence on foreign nation(e.g. US food aid PL480) which compromised strategic autonomy in our foreign policy. Green revolution had been launched and Farmers were needed to be motivated.
Since then this slogan has become popular.
Indian defence forces not only could successfully repel Pakistani attack but also showed extraordinary valour to capture territories inside Pakistan
Green revolution succeeded and country soon became sufficient in food production.
This slogan also motivated armed forces during subsequent wars of 1971, 1999
Amid the tussle over OROP, this slogan will go a long way to assure jawans of nation’s committment to their cause.
Amid the drought and farmer suicides in Marathwada, North Karnataka, etc, slogan can at least provide psychological support to the distressed farmers