Q.1) “In Russia, Lenin was the father of socialism, organiser of the revolution and the founder of the new Russian society.” Examine.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Santhosh Venkatesh
Ans) Lenin was a historical figure in two ways. He put some of erstwhile theoretical ideas of Marx to practice and also created a future Political order of the world.
Leader of October Revolution
– Put forward a clear Manifesto to the people declaring “All power to soviets” and also spoke about self determination of Nationalities.
– Ordered an armed insurrection to topple the Provisional government by seizing control of Petrograd’s key areas such as transport, communication without Bloodshed.
– He galvanised various sections of people from workers and peasants.
– Finally he formed the new government called Council of People’s Commissars.
Father of Socialism
– A decree on land was declared and Estates of landlords, Church and Czar were transferred to peasants.
– Control of Industries was given to committees of workers.
– Various Institutions such as Banks, Insurance companies, Large Industries, Water transport and Railways were nationalised.
– Declaration of Rights of People and Self Determination of Nationalities previously under Czar
Founder of New society
– The socialist ideal of “Each according to his capacity “To “Each according to his work” was realised”.
– Right to work became a Constitutional Right and Education was given top priority.
– Allowed Free love, divorce and abortion.
– Labour laws restricted number of working hours.
– The glaring Income Inequalities during Czar Regime was reduced.
– He laid foundation for state capitalism by introducing New economic Policy.
Q.2) “President Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal had the wit to start the political economy in a fresh, more promising direction.” Do you agree?
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Sepoy No 1446
Ans) America had traditionally been a capitalist country which gave much emphasis to individualism and entrepreneurship.The great depression of 30’s provided an opportunity to bring radical changes in this system. However, the efforts though did enthuse a sense of liberal welfarism but fell short of a perennial permanent change.
Great depression of 1930’s led to widespread unemployement and crippled economies in most part of the world. America under leadership of President Roosevelt took corrective action in form of New Deal. New deal was a Keynesian idea of government intervention to increase economic activity in state. It aimed at three R’s: relief from unemployment,recovery from depression and reforms to prevent further depression. Tennessee valley authority was set up to take up various welfare activities. Thus capitalistic ideals were suppressed for timebeing and America virtually acted as a socialist welfare state.
This was however Short lived as it was almost over by WW2. Nevertheless new deal set the precedent of timely state intervention to bring the democratic, decentralized and socialistic spirit of government which often gets subdued in a hyperactive capitalist country. Truman’s fair deal and Johnson’s great society and up to certain extent Obama’s medicare plan resonates this new liberal spirit in American political economy.
Q.3) Critically examine the main features of the Foreign Policy of the Nazi Germany.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Peeku
Ans) The aggressive foreign policy of Nazi Germany was a direct outcome of the bitterness caused due to the humiliating Treaty of Versailles. Some of the key aims were to end the restrictions on Germany, re-armament, Lebensraum (German expansion in the East), Volksdeutsche (unite all German speaking people in one country) and to promote Nazi ideology to the world.
In 1933, Germany withdrew from the League of Nations which depicted that it was no more intimidated by the Allied powers and that it did not accept Treaty of Versailles any more.
The 10 year Non-Aggression pact with Poland was interpreted as pacifist, but the real motive was expansion as 5 years later Germany invaded Poland.
Germany retained the resource rich Saar region from France which shows foresightedness as strong economy was important for expansion.
In 1935, Hitler publicly announced Nazi Germany’s military status thus violating the Treaty of Versailles. Through the Anglo-German naval agreement, the naval force was also increased. The Treaty was also violated again by the political union of Austria and Nazi Germany in 1938.
The policy of spreading Nazi ideology was evident when Germany supported Fascist rebels in Spain along with Italy in 1936.
Since Hitler was apprehensive of another war, he strengthened his diplomatic and military position against France, Britain and Russia with the Rome-Berlin axis agreement and the Anti-Comintern which opposed communism.
Thus the radical German foreign policy not only uplifted prominence of Germany again but also prepared ground for WW2.
Q.4) “The Vietnam War was the longest and the most unpopular war in which Americans ever fought.” Explain the factors that led to the US involvement in Vietnam War and why it was unpopular with the Americans?
The Top Answer for this question is written by – RKM
Ans) The Vietnam War was certainly the longest war in which Americans fought as it started in 1961 and ended in 1975 albeit USA troops were forced to withdraw in 1973.
Reasons for USA involvement-
1.Obsession with Domino theory i.e spread of communism through neighbours or knock over effect.Also the location give an opportunity to counter China , a centre of communism.
2.Failure of Diem Govt in South Vietnam to tackle NLF forced USA to increase its military presence.
3.Effect of failure to defeat communism in Cuba and North Korea. Also to pusue its containment policy.
4.Ho Chi Minh support to Vietcong(Guerrillas) strenghtened USA resove to support South Vietnam.
Why it is so unpopular?
1.Huge number of war crimes were committed by both sides during the conflict and included rape, massacres of civilians, bombings of civilian targets, terrorism, the widespread use of torture and the murder of prisoners of war,
2.Use of deadly chemicals,Naplam jelly and the massacre at My lai hamlet provoked strong reactions in the world.
3.Huge financial costs for armed struggle and payment for war crimes.
So,failure in war along with the Watergate scandal shook the confidence of people of USA in political system and forced President Nixon to resign.
Q.5) “The Holocaust also shows us how a combination of events and attitudes can erode a society’s democratic values.” Examine the events that led to the systematic extermination of Jews in Europe during the World War II.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Rahul Agarwal
Ans) Holocaust was one of the most heinous crime against humanity ,initiated by Nazi regime and further continued by Italy and other axis powers. It led to extermination of almost 5 million Jews but, surprisingly it got the sanction of people, which clearly showed that democratic ideals could be trampled by extreme Attitude and events.
The humiliation of treaty of Versailles was too much to reconcile for Germans. Any argument in its opposition was welcome
The economic problems after wars, great depression, resulted in unemployment and people actually welcomed removal of Jews from jobs
Nuremberg laws by Hitler, deprived Jews of basic freedoms, and that sparked the chain of sending to concentration camps and gas chambers.
The anti semitic doctrine of Hitler was very appealing, as he pinned responsibility on Jews for conspiracy
The hailing of racial supremacy, indoctrination by education resulted in attitudes favorable for holocaust.
Thus, holocaust of world war2, sets a warning for us, that events and attitudes can very well turn actions towards extreme hatred and propaganda. The world should keep a strict vigil on such incidences to prevent any such holocaust in future.
IASbaba imparts 360-degree IAS preparation solutions with their exhaustive Prelims and Mains preparation courses, supported by the latest UPSC preparation material. Avail our expert help by enrolling with us to keep your knowledge updated and stay ahead of your competition.
Most Trending and Trusted Programmes by UPSC Toppers :