Q.1) The first law of decency it to preserve the liberty of others. How far the safeguards provided by the Indian Constitution to respect the liberty of the minorities in the country been effective? What do you think; it is the problem of law or society?
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Dark Matter
Ans) To preserve diversity and integrity of the nation, our constitution has included various provisions to safeguard linguistic, ethnic, religious minorities such as in fundamental rights right to equality(14-18), religious rights (25-30), and created commissions like national commission for minorities, special officer for linguistic minorites, legislations, separate ministry of minority affairs, special funds to safeguard minorities interests
These resulted in significant improvement in status of social indicators of minorities and employment levels but still minorities have been facing second handed citizenship due to problems of both law and society
Problems with law:
National commision which looks into various issues have only recommendatory powers.
Effective legislations were not devised by many states.
Lower allocations to ministry.
These clearly outlines problem of implementation.
Problems with society:
Due to categorisation of residential areas every minority have their neighbourhoods preventing cultural mix and closing the window of opportunity of mainstreaming minorities.
Aversive attitude of majority makes integration a difficult problem. Recent example of a muslim citizen facing difficulties in finding house and a prominent industry denying a job opportunity solely on the basis of religion proves the point.
Vested interests creating problems like communalism, NE exodus, ousting biharis from maharashtra, playing politics in providing reservation and others creates a hostile nature among majorities societies further widening gap between both.
As pointed out by sachar committee,an inclusive approach of development along with capacity building programmes for minorities, integrating strategies by promoting cultural programmes are needed to tackle this problem.
Q.2) Does Indian Cinema reflects the real India? In terms of viewership, is it sports or cinema that dominates the Indian heart? Comment.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Ankita
Cinema is said to be the mirror of the society .Through the medium of the popular art various facets of Indian society are portrayed .Documentary films on gender issues, child abuse, and other social stigmas are reflected by our cinema eg gulabi gang showed women united to fight against miseries.
The documentary “India’s daughter“on the nirbhaya rape victim was meant to sensitise people. Wildlife films help in educating and spreading awareness. Cinema showcases a variety of emotions which can be associated with our day to day life. Cinema on sports personalities like Milkha Singh and Mary Kom inspires many. Plight of rural folks have been well shown in cinema like Peepli live..
However, apart from reflecting real India, Cinema affects and influences people. The dress style ,life styles of icons, some crimes are even imitated .
In terms of viewership Cinema out beats Sports due to various reasons:
==large span and scope of Cinema eg mainstream off-beat, spiritual, regional languages
==Cricket tends to overshadow other sports
==glamour content of cinema attracts wider audiences
==Female audiences prefer Cinema over sports
==business dimension of Cinema out numbers sports (except Cricket)
Both Cinema and Sports are part of leisure activities and promoting both will be economical and emotionally fulfilling. Both reflect the aspirations of society and act as a uniting factor cutting across geographical, language, caste barriers.
Q.3) Critically examine the consequences of legalization of prostitution in India.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Namrata
Ans) Prostitution is viewed with immense disrespect in the Indian society. While some take to this profession due to financial crunch, others are forced into the trade by fraudulent selling. Legalising this profession presents both sides to the coin.
The probable pros are:
Improved Standard of Living: Sex workers would be entitled to several government schemes like Aadhaar Card. The labour laws would ensure protection of their rights and dignified way of living including education and healthcare facilities for their children.
Better Health Status: Timely medical checkup of workers would help checking the spread of HIV and other Sexually Transmitted Diseases.
Reduced Crime: Crimes against women like rapes may reduce. Children trafficking can be monitored.
Easier Grievance Redressal: Workers would be able to report to police cases of violence by customers and brothel owners.
Taxation: Government would get the added advantage of tax collection from prostitution business.
The probable cons are:
Human trafficking: Cases of human trafficking would be on the rise to meet increasing demand.
Exploitation: Customers would consider it their right over sex workers, leading to unnatural sex and their rape.
Values: Societal values may stand to be harmed as such business may get the license to operate near our homes, educational and religious institutions, having ill-influence on children specially.
Family life: Marriage life may stand affected with legalised availability of sex.
Legalising this profession requires social acceptance and to ensure that the merits are implemented effectively to outweigh the demerits of prostitution, for which India is not ready presently.
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Dark Matter
Prostitution in india can be traced back to times of devadasi system.but recently prostitution is being utilised by many anti social elements and commiting various atrocities.one of the solutions to this is legalisation.
Positives of prostitution:
1.it would make prostitution as a respectable economic occupation and would extend government control over this sector controlling problems like humanrights violations,trafficking,forced prostitution.
2.This would increase involved women dignity in the society
3.Government social secutiy schemes could be applied to support those who are involved in it
4.Legalization could make government to take step to tackle various health problems like aids,sexually transmitted diseases which could improve invovlved womens health also and reduce public health burden expenditure
But these advantages need to be looked in the sphere of:
1.legalisation could increase commodification of women in already patriarchal dominated society
2.Due to decentralised nature of occupation,strict oversight may become difficult leading to underground nature of prostitution
3.This could impact indian ethos and could undermine traditional family role
A cautious approach after conducting deliberations with all stake holders involved is necessary before taking any radical step and various other optins like providing alternate employment to women involved also need to be looked upon
Q.4) With the incident like ‘Charlie Hebdo’, do you think Media has gone one-step ahead in inviting trouble despite of the awareness of the danger some topics are fraught with? Is it a case of ‘Truth reporting’ or ‘TRP-reporting?
The Top Answer for this question is written by – Nishant
Ans) Freedom of Press itself comes with reasonable restrictions under Article 19. But the news media seems to be pushing these limits more often these days. ‘Charlie Hebdo’ was one such incident. Ethical journalism demands reporting on critical issues, but it also prescribes due sensitivity and restraint where needed. The Indian media too seems to be lacking in these ethics.
Competition and one-upmanship has forced media to resort to new ways of reporting which often invite trouble. The recent case of a news channel calling the family of a captured terrorist is one such incident. Secondly, the concept of 24/7 news requires media to create news out of thin air. There have been reported cases of paid news, ‘planted’ interviews. ‘Truth reporting’ then becomes TRP reporting.
Media, especially in India lacks strong regulation – both self-imposed and institutional. They usually take protection under the popular phrase “freedom of press”.
While their efforts in channelizing civilian activism should be applauded, the emerging phenomenon of “Media Trial” as seen in ‘Yakub Memon hanging’ only undermines the esteemed authorities such as the Supreme Court. ‘Sensationalism’ instigates people the wrong way and may even create communal tension. As quoted by noted journalist Rajdeep Sardesai – “News media then become ‘supari’ journalism”.
Q.5) Indian democracy has successfully failed to take forward the agenda of social revolutionaries such as Phule, Ambedkar and Jagjivan Ram. What were these agendas and why did they fail?
The Top Answer for this question is written by – SK
Ans) The common agenda taken up by the social revolutionaries like Ambedkar, Jyoti rao phule, and Jagjivan ram were:
To eradicate untouchability
To eliminate discrimination on the basis of caste or birth
To eliminate social oppression of Dalits by the upper class
They have spread their agenda under special organisations set up for the purpose. For example, Ambedkar formed Bahishkrit Hitakarni Sabha, Phule formed Satya Sodhak Samaj, and Jagjivan utilied All India Depressed Classes League.
However, the Indian democracy failed to take forward their vision. Various reasons are attributed to this.
Failure of implementation of law
No. of cases of untouchability are increasing as per National Commission for Scheduled Castes (NCSC) report, but conviction rates are reducing under Protection of Civil Rights Act. There are no special courts to hear complaints against SCs problems.
Failure of the state
The govt. failed in providing them proper educational, health and employment opportunities. Lack of income security forces them to continue bonded/forced labor; undertake manual scavenging etc. Thus, discrimination is forced to continue in a disguised form.
Failure of NCSC
It’s only a recommendatory body, with no penal powers, inefficient staff, less field workers, innumerable pending complaints etc.
Poor representation ratio at Parliament, State and Panchayat levels corresponding to their population even after 73rd and 74th amendments.
To address these issues govt is bringing SC and ST (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Bill, Prohibition of Manual Scavenging Bill etc.