Q.1) “The British Raj during all these years used princely states as effective tools against the new forces of nationalism in the provinces”. Substantiate.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Annapurna Garg
Ans) During British rule in India, around two thirds of area was ruled by princes. These were called princely states like Hyderabad, Mysore, Kashmir. These were used as effective tools against the forces of nationalism which is evident from following:
British used such policies that princes were kept in complete confidence of the rule. They were assured of their protection against any external or internal aggression. This made the princes to remain loyal to the British and curbed voices of dissent.
Chamber of princes was formed in 1921 to provide a collective forum to the Princes to voice their concerns.
Government of India act proposed for a federal government in which federal seats were for princes than elected representatives. This was to check any move against the British interest.
Time and again British appointed missions proposed for giving free hand to princely states to decide their future. For example, August offer, crisps mission. This enhances the bonhomie between the two.
Princes were thus effectively used. This could be seen in the way they supported British in curbing 1857 revolt. Also, there was not any significant nationalist sentiment in these states. First such effort was made only in 1927 when AISPC was established. Thus, it can be said that princes were a major factor which helped to sustain the Raj.
Q.2) Indian Nationalism had a unique emergence. While it was a product of colonial modernity, it took several years to create a nationalistic ideology and national consciousness. Critically analyse.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Tom_Dwan
Ans) Indian nationalism grew partly as a result of colonial policies and partly as a reaction to colonial policies.It was offshoot of modernisation initiated by the British in India.
Product of colonial modernity
A professional civil service, a unified judiciary and codified civil and criminal laws throughout the country imparted political unity.
Development of modern means of transport and communication such as railways, roads, electricity and telegraph helped in exchange of political ideas and for mobilisation of public opinion.Economic fate of people got linked.
The introduction of a modern system of education and liberal and radical thought of European writers helped many Indians imbibe modern rational, secular, democrAtic and nationalist ideas.
The English language helped nationalist leaders from different linguistic regions to communicate with each other.
The rise of press helped in criticising official policies.
It also took several years to create a nationalistic ideology and national consciousness because of following reasons.
Narrow social base and lack of mass participation.
During early phase zamindars,moneylenders,princely states and modern educated Indians considered British as their well wishers.
Social conditions were not good and women vigorously participated only at later phases of nationalism.
Caste,religion and untouchability splinterd people in numerous groups.
Communal consciousness was more prevalent than national consciousness which caused hindrance in nationalism.
Q.3) Compare and contrast the nationalism of Bal Gangadhar Tilak and Gopal Krishna Gokhale.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Wizard
Ans) Bal Gangadhar Tikal and Gopal Krishna Gokhale are two brightest stars of Indian National Struggle from two different school of thought. Tilak was extremist while Gokhale was a moderate.
Tilak was a strong supporter of Swaraj. He actively participated in Swadeshi movement and wanted to spread the movement throughout India. He edited Keshri in Marathi and Mahratta in English and used
it as a tool to spread his ideas. His poem on Shivaji invoked Chepakar brothers to assassinate Plague commissioner Rand. He started Shivaji and Ganesh Utsav in Maharashtra to inculcate nationalism in common public. He was believer of Hindu-Muslim unity and was responsible for Lucknow pact in 1916.
Gokhale was the political Guru of Gandhi and Jinna. He judicially used the parliament floor to oppose the British policies and Budget. He started Servants of India Society to educate masses. Being a moderate, independence was not high on his agenda, he wanted reforms in present institution and more participation of Indian in Government bodies. He was proponent of social reforms and strongly support Age of Consent Bill.
Tilak in contrast to Gokhale opposed British interference in Hindu tradition and hence opposed Age of Concent bill.Tilak wanted mass participation and direct action which Gokhale opposed. Gokhale opposed Tilak nomination as president of Indian National Congress in 1906 and 1907, which resulted in split in Congress.
Though they belonged to two different school of thought, their main objective was love for motherland and welfare of its people.
Q.4) Failure of moderates to elicit the desired response from the British and the losing appeal of moderate ideology made the rise of extremism in Indian nationalism inevitable. Analyse.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Jimboomba
Ans) Moderates refer to those group of western educated Indian intellectuals, who believed in legitimate and moderate means of protests like petitioning for the gradual realization of self rule in India.
They developed a rational and analytical economic critique of colonial rule which served as the basis for the development of nationalist ideology.
They transformed legislatures into avenues for building the nationalist movement.
But their politics was soon rendered obsolete as,
They failed to attract common people. The vast majority of illiterate Indian’s were unable to connect to their political ideology
They were unable to organize a pan Indian campaign,neither did they try to increase the scale and magnitude of their political activities.
Their moderate means yielded only meager practical achievements. The British treated them with contempt and didn’t concede to their demands in most cases.
It was thus the dissatisfaction with the moderate methods that brought extremist into the forefront of Indian politics.
They rightly emphasized the role of masses and the need to go beyond propaganda and agitation.
They advocated a militant programme of passive resistance and boycott of foreign cloth.
They focused on direct action ,self sacrifice and grass root level action.
But the extremist failed to devise practical ways to channelize their patriotic energies.
Thus, both the moderates and the extremist had their own strength and weakness.India’s freedom struggle required a successful dovetailing of their complementary activities.
Q.5) Discuss the growth of revolutionary terrorism in different parts of India in the early twentieth century.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Tom_Dwan
Ans) Revolutionary terrorism was a by-product of the process of militant nationalism in India.
Reasons for spread
Fallout of Swadeshi and Boycott movement.
The extremists leaders failed to create effective political channels so that youth can give expression to their patriotic energies.
Youth Nationalists thought that british must be expelled physically.
Individual heroic action.
Assassination of unpopular british officials.
Conducting dacoities to raise funds.
Organising military conspiracies with enemies of Britain
-Revolutionary groups were organized in 1902 in Midnapore and in Calcutta the Anushilan Samiti founded by Promotha Mitter
-Weekly Yugantar wrote articles to arouse revolutionary sentiments.
-In 1907, an attempt was made on the life West Bengal Lt. Governor Fueller.
-In 1908, Barrah dacoity was organized .
-First organisation of the Ramosi Peasant Force by Vasudev Balwant Phadke in 1879.
-Tilak used Ganapati and Shivaji festivals and his journals Kesari and Maratta for militant nationalism.
-The Chapekar brothers murdered the Plague Commissioner of Poona.
-Lala Lajpat Rai brought out Punjabee and Ajit Singh organized the extremist Anjurnan-i-Mohisban-i-Watan in Lahore with its journal, Bharat Mata.
-Need for shelter, the possibility of bringing out revolutionary literature took Indian revolutionaries abroad.
-Shyamji Krishnavarma had started in London in 1905 an Indian Home Rule Society.
-Madanlal Dhingra of assassinated bureaucrat Curzon Wyllie in 1909.