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Think Learn & Perform (TLP): GS Mains Synopsis [Day 75]

  • November 16, 2015
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Think and Learn, TLP Mains 2015, UPSC, UPSC Mains- Think and Learn-2015
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TLP: GS Mains Synopsis [Day 75]

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Q.1) How do the paintings of Ajanta help in interpreting the contemporary Society?

 

The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Mumtaz Ahmad

 

Ans) The paintings of the Ajanta helps us in interpreting and understanding the contemporary society, the following points substantiates this:

1. The elaboration of the Buddha, his life and how he achieved enlightenment through Jataka stories tells about the essence of Buddhism as perceived by the common men.

2. Various rituals performed such as consecration ceremony of kings, dances and music performed in royal courts etc. provides significant information about royal practices.

3. The depiction of Indra flying in the clouds accompanied by the nymphs with a great perspective, shows other sects and mythologies prevalent in the contemporary society.

4. A large number of Chaityas and Viharas explored in various caves of Ajanta draws attention towards the life style and dwellings of buddhist monks.

5. The paintings of the Ajanta caves throws light on the great artisanship in using diverse colors, bold outline, immaculate perspective along with the centrality in various paintings.

The Ajanta paintings provide a wide elaboration of the prevailing contemporary society, the art forms and rituals practised as well as religious inclinations of the people. 


Q.2) History writing was not an art known to Indians. Elucidate with early literary examples.

 

The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Cosviny

 

Ans) History writing was not an art known to Indians. Elucidate with early literary examples.

Ans. the early India history have lot of literature almost on every topic and subject from religion, epic , Play , fiction, biography to physical and social science but not specifically on history. We can trace the literature to find the text for history writing one by one:-

1. The Vedas and Upanishads etc were early writing but on rituals performance,music, geometry etc. but no one specifically on history or chronology of kings or feuds at that time.

2. Ramayana, Mahabharata and other epics were written as fiction on a single aristocratic family story. Thus no where touched the history writings.

3. The Buddhist, jainas and other texts were related to spiritual teachings of founder and propagators of religious thought.

4. The varahmihir , Aryabhatta, Charak, Dhanvantris wrote text in their own specializations but no historian in such writers is known.

5. The south Indian sangam Literature composed on Grammar,Poetry and Prose.

6. The medieval Period is Witness of many biographies like Humayunama, Ain-e- Akbari etc. but no specific text on history underpinnings.

Thus we can conclude that history is found on rock carvings, Prasasti-Patra and in biographies, written in praise of Kings and aristocratic heads sometimes but to write history was not the specific feature of these euphonis and epithets. 


Q.3) Painting during Jehangir’s reign reached its Zenith. How were Paintings during Jehangir’s time different from earlier Mughal period?

 

The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Mumtaz Ahmad

 

Ans) The Mughal painting during the reign of Jehangir reached its climax who himself was a great painter and connoisseur of arts.The characteristic features of the paintings during this time period could be described as follow:

1. There is a liberal use of golden colors along borders with colorful floral design.

2. The theme of the portraiture were mainly flora, fauna and birds and the paintings were highly secular in form.

3. Extensive use of vibrant and subtle colors such as peacock blue and red were dominant.

4. It evolved a three dimensional form of miniature portrait and focus was stressed on elaborating perspective, influenced from western style.

The paintings in Jehangir reign were somewhat different and more refined from earlier forms of miniature paintings in the Mughal School. Following points substantiates this:

1. The paintings during Akbar’s reign such as tuti-nama, hamza-nama etc. were mostly based on court scenes and were crowded in content whereas Jehangir’s phase was marked by naturalistic projections.

2. The earlier boldness in outline and simple colors were replaced by touch of softness and subtleties of vibrant colors.

3. The borderings in the portraiture and extensive floral designs during Jehangir’s reign were not prominent during earlier periods of Mughal art.

4. The art of 3D projection and perspective were another developments in the Jehangir’s reign. 


Q.4) Literature has played a major role in changing the course of history, from renaissance to French revolution to India’s struggle for independence. Do you think literature is still that significant as far as its impact on society is concerned or its position has been taken by some other medium?

 

The Top Answer for this Question is written by – SBT57

 

Ans)

Image 1 – https://a.disquscdn.com/uploads/mediaembed/images/2797/8194/original.jpg

Image 2 – https://a.disquscdn.com/uploads/mediaembed/images/2797/8193/original.jpg 


High Order Thinking

 

Q.5) The rural data revealed by the socio-economic census presents the grim reality of the countryside. While the intended use of this data is still unclear, the government should move towards universalizing the social entitlements along with giving significant leeway to states to implement them. Do you agree? Critically examine.

 

The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Cosviny

 

Ans) The rural data from SECC,2011 reveal that the more than 50 % Households are landless dependent on manual labour and live in deprivation.One one side poverty is still worse and we are still finding the right way count the poor. Centre and state collected data have less consensus. In this dire situations one way is to universalizing the social entitlement along with some autonomy to states to implement them is right approach due to the following reasons:-

1. We can be free from exclusionary policy. It means the deserving one should not be eliminated even at the cost of two non deserving take the benefits out.

2. Frugality and moderation have been Indian way of life. Some global institution from Western ideology and thought cannot tell us what is poverty and how should we count and provide solution. Indigenous way out rather than emphasis on counting of poverty ridden merely.

3. Poverty line is still debatable after Rangrajan methodology which is not much different from Tendulkar Committee.

4. Centre would be for indicative targets not for imperative and could fix some incentives for well performing states. In this method state can take help of Local self government instead of bureaucratic parastatals. Evidence based planning can be realised in this way.

but there are some poor performing states with less capacity and caught in vicious cycle of low growth and increasing burden of debt for such states only direction from centre may not work. States subjects like health, water, agriculture and police have been traditionally low performing and more rely on state’s approach would be always doubtful. The corruption and leakage in Mid day meal, ICDS , PDS and MNREGA has been evidence before us.

That is why first act like NFSM can be implemented by devolving distribution of subsidized grain to states in the way it is designed to include more than 80 percent population including both APL and BPL. This would be a followup example for greater states autonomy and leeway for other cases of central schemes also. 


Q.6) The proposal to codify the central labour laws under five simple headings is a welcome step. Do you agree? What in your opinion are the principal irritants in labour laws that hider investment and neglect labour interests? How codification of central labour laws can resolve these issues? Analyse.

 

The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Annapurna Garg

 

Ans) The proposal to codify the present 44 labour laws into 4 heads – wages, industrial relations, social protection and safety and working conditions is a progressive step. This will lead to proper categorisation of multiple laws and prevent the confusion among employers, as well as employees.

 

Followng are the irritants in labor laws that hinder investment:

1. Lack of freedom related to retrenchment and closing down.

2. Rigid trade unions which hamper tough decision making.

3. Differential laws for MSME and large industries discourage expansion to escape the inflexible laws.

 

Neglect of labor interest:

1. Large informal sector is outside the ambit of these laws.

2. Social safety net is inadequate like pension, insurance etc and limited largely to public enterprises.

3. Lack of basic facilities like washrooms.

4. Minimum wages act is not strictly adhered to.

 

Recent initiates like amendments to factory act, apprenticeship act, deen Dayal shramev jayate karyakram act are welcome steps.

Codification of laws would also contribute positively. It will boost investor confidence. Litigation related to labor laws would take less time to settle and hence save precious times and money. It will reduce the regulatory hassles due to multiple laws. It’s also expected to improve compliance. It will prevent harassment of employees due to non understanding of laws.

But, it’s also important that the amended laws are implemented in right spirit so as to achieve a balance between between interests of employers and the employees.

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