Q.1) What do you understand by food processing? How can food processing help in ensuring food security?
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Mani
Ans) Food processing is the process in which food treated to make it edible. It involves process like cleaning, washing right form farm gate to preparing different products and packaging.
Food processing leads to transformation of food from being a raw material to processed meal.
Food security means adequate availability, accessibility and affordability of food. Food processing can help in ensuring food security:
1. Food processing industry can provide a sustainable source of income to employees, poor farmers.
2. It can reduce wastage through efficient packaging.
3. The food processing industry is supported by high quality supply chain management, so it can ensure availability of food in remote areas.
4. Reducing the cost of food processing by increasing competition, supporting the industry will reduce the price of food products.
5. It increases the choice of food, thus even when a person is not able to eat one thing (due to disease or other reasons) he can try other foods.
6. Dairy products can be made cheap and of good quality through food processing.
Food processing has immense potential in improving food security and efforts must be made to develop the industry. Indian govt has taken steps like Mega Food Park scheme, Supply chain management scheme.
Q.2) Despite of knowledge of the ill effects of pesticides, farmers still use high doses in their agriculture. What is the reason of this excessive use of pesticides. What steps can be taken to check this growth?
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Yogesh Bhatt
Ans) Reason for excessive use of pesticides
1′- use of hybrid seeds which need intensive care and protection.
2′- High investment in other inputs like tillage, fertilizer, labor and so on lure farmers to use pesticide to avoid any crop lose by insect and pest attack.
3′- farmers are also looking for short cuts to control pest
4′- propaganda and huge publicity for chemical industry
5′- conventional methods are not much effective against new pest.
6′- subsidized products by government
7′- Mono culture cropping practices.
How to control?’
1′- bring back local seeds, composite, and improved varieties, not follow blindly high cost hybrid
2′- Multiple cropping practices
3′- Mix of organic farming and gradually shift to organic farming
4′- physical, mechanical methods need to promote against pest
5′-promotion of friend insects in field
6′- Deep summer plough, use of light trap, and many other conventional practices need to bring back.
7′- Agriculture university itself need to shift focus from chemical intensive agriculture to other methods and same need to transfer through KVKs and other agriculture workshops.
Remember more chemical,more resistance development in pest and in coming year more powerful pest in field. so it is a vicious cycle, to break it need a shift in agriculture practice itself. Conventional agriculture model, organic farming, and SRI practices are better alternative.
Q.3) Indian farmers are still heavily dependent on monsoons. Where is the Government lacking in meeting the water requirements of the farmers? What steps should be taken?
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – SBT57
Q.1) The denial of socio-economic and political justice to the Dalits has more to do with present day institutions than the law of the land. Discuss. Further, would you agree with the argument that it is not the law and order machinery but an attitudinal change in the society only that can check incidents of atrocities against the depressed sections of the society? Critically examine.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – SBT57
Q.2) Although India can’t compete with China’s ventures in Africa in terms of capital investment, resources and scale, India’s core competencies and expertise in human resource development, capacity building, IT and local governance provide an edge that needs to be tapped in Africa. Elucidate.
The Top Answer for this Question is written by – Tom_Dwan
Ans) India-Africa trade currently stands at $70 billion an unimpressive figure compared to China’s $200 billion trade with Africa.Still we can exploit our expertise in human resource development, capacity building, IT and local governance to compete with China.
1. Human Resource Development
-India announced 50000 scholarships for African students.
-Promote greater interaction, exchange and partnership between the tertiary institutions of Africa and India
-Intensify cooperation through sharing of experiences, gender-specific training
2. Capacity Building
-enhance collaboration in the application of advancement in, research and development to training in the area of HIV, TB, Malaria, Ebola and Polio.
-developing sustainable fisheries, managing marine resources, port operations,promoting eco-tourism, developing renewable energy and disaster risk reduction.
-increase cooperation in improving farming techniques through organic farming, improving crop varieties, seeds. agribusinesses and food processing industry.
-cooperation in developing renewable energy generation including solar, wind, hydro, geo-thermal and bio-mass along with building power transmission systems.
-Upgrade the existing Pan African E-Network Project infrastructure and TEAM-9 programme.
-establish a robust fibre optic infrastructure in Africa, contribute in cyber security and tap India’s huge BPO services.
-emphasize the importance of the early introduction of ICT in educational institutions as a key enabler for capacity building.
4. Local governance
-Help African villages with our knowhow of panchayati raj institutions.
-India’s Self Help Groups and microfinance institutions can collaborate with their African counterparts.
These measures will help India counter China, UNSC expansion, WTO terms, SDG’s and Climate change negotiation alongwith peaceful and robust Africa.