1. The industry-academia interface in India requires a major overhaul from the policy side. Do you agree? Why? What reforms have been introduced by the government recently? Discuss.
Write a brief intro about the demand and supply gap
National employability Report 2014 had reported that only 18% of engineering graduates are considered employable. And only 24% of postgraduates are employable
NASSCOM report says that, only 25% of technical graduates and 15% of other graduates are employable in IT and ITES industry ,it is estimated that IT industry will require 2.3 million professional currently India has only 1.5 million.
Reasons for low employability
lack of practical experience and inadequate skill development.
Lack of trained teachers and infrastructure.
Rapid changes in technology used in industry,the curriculum lags behind.
Teaching is more exam oriented than understanding the principles and applications
Lack of support from the industry, I.e, no communication and synergy between academia and industry.
the Gross Enrolment Ratio, or GER in higher education is currently at 24.69% in 2013, it still sits below the global average of 27%More than half of the population is under the age of 25
Enrolment by Stages – Higher Education (as a percentage of number of students taking admission in primary school)
Undergraduate – 86.11%
Postgraduate – 12.07%
Diploma/ Certificate – 1.01%
Research – 0.81%
Steps taken by government:
HRD ministry has constituted Council for Industry & Higher Education Collaboration (CIHEC) to facilitate development of strategies and innovative instruments of collaboration
Proposed Higher Education Financing Agency (HEFA) to leverage industry support to improve R& D infrastructure of educational institutions
Increased allocation under Centrally Sponsored scheme of Rashtriya Uchchtar Shiksha Abhiyan providing funding under research, innovation and quality improvement.
Linking the National Board for Skill Development Certification with the industry and academia to fill the skillgap
AICTE’s Industry Institute Partnership Cell acts as a liaison centre between industry and various departments of technical institutes and universities
National Facilities in Engineering & Technology with Industrial Collaboration was started to encourage collaboration between industry and institutions for product development, basic research and consultation
UGC’s Encore initiative aims at enhancing faculty resources in universities by involving professionals from PSUs and research organisations
Din Dayal Upadhaya Yojana provide for skill development in rural as well as urban India.
Start Up India, Stand Up India, Atal Innovation Mission and SETU initiatives are promoting innovation, entrepreneurial skills and self employment, also they will provide incubation facilities in certain universities.
MUDRA scheme provide for refinancing of MSME sector and boosting their growth and development and self employment
MPRINT INDIA to incentivise the R&D in certain sectors like IT, Agri etc
Skill India mission which aims to train over 40 crore people in India in different skills by 2022
State your opinion and conclude the answer.
Best answer :MADSTER
Yes, Industry academia interface requires and overhaul from policy side .The poor condition of industry academia interface is visible from the following facts
Higher education which is the feeder of workforce and will help India in becoming the HR Capital of the world has Gross Enrolment Ratio of mere 20%
Only 25% of the graduates are technical graduates and mere 15% of all graduates are employable in the industries .94% of the workforce has no technical education making it difficult for the industries to find apt candidates
Policies are against privatisation and FDI which can provide the necessary funding for research works. Even though 100% FDI is allowed there are many restrictions like No Profit Principle ,only Sec 25 companies are allowed to invest.
WEF in its report ‘The Future of Jobs’ claimed that 65% of current primary school children will end up working for a completely different new job dependent upon the industry. This shows the importance of the need to change the industry academia interface.
Projects like MII ,DI will promote manufacturing sector which will require skilled workers .Proper industry academia interface will reduce the burden on industries to train the new recruits and will help them in finding ppl suitable for the jobs easily
Considering all the factors gov has taken some positive steps in that direction
Nat Skill Development Mission–>This programme targets to upskill 150 million Indians which will lead to better employability and productivity. It will provide an umbrella framework for all the skilling activities taking place in the country ,will align them to common standards and connect them to demand centers. All these activities will be promoted through private sectors involvement. Also incubation centers will be opened in many colleges to promote entrepreneurship skills and environment
Rashtriya Uchatar Sikhsha Abhiyan–>It will promote higher education instituties and help them in setting up world class infrastructure with the involvement of the state
GIAN–>Promote the involvement of world class scientists and entrepreneurs with HE Institutes in India
IMPRINT India–>It is a joint initiative of pan IIT and IISc to design a roadmap for research in India to solve major technical and engineering challenges in 10 technical domains like Computer Science ,Nano Technology ,Manufacturing sector etc
Digital India Fund set aside for education may be effectively used for complementing these objectives through information and communication technology (ICT) and massive open online courses (MOOCs)
Higher Education Financing Agency (HEFA), with an initial capital base of Rs.1,000 crore is a step towards improving the infrastructure of educational institutions. Even though it will be a non-profit organization, it will leverage funds from the market and supplement them with donations and corporate social responsibility (CSR) funds.
All these initiatives if implemented properly with private sectors participation ,will help India in emerging as a Human Resources Capital of the world in next few years
2. What do you understand by the term ‘indigenous’ people? Identify some of the indigenous tribes of India along with their locations. What kind of a strategy should be adopted for their welfare without disrupting the symbiotic relationship that exists between these tribes and the nature? Discuss.
Part I: Definition
The International Labour Organisation (ILO) used the expression “indigeneous people” to refer to the tribals, that finds no satisfactory definition, not even in the Constitution.
To the ordinary man the word suggests simple folk living in hills and forests; to people who are a little better informed, it signifies a colourful people famous for their dance and songs; to an administrator it means a group of citizens who are special responsibilities of the President of India; to an Anthropologist it indicates a special field for study of a social phenomenon. No standard term has been accepted to denominate the people who are classified as of tribal origin.
Part II: Indigenous tribes of India along with their locations
The tribes in India are not found in any one particular region alone, but distributed along the various states. Accordingly, we can classify it into a four-fold territorial distribution
The North and the North Eastern zone
The Central or the middle zone
The Southern zone
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
(Write some tribal names associated with each zone)
Part III: Strategy
Indigenous and other traditional peoples have long associations with nature and a deep understanding of it. Often they have made significant contributions to the maintenance of many of the earth’s most fragile ecosystems, through their traditional sustainable resource use practices and culture-based respect for nature. Land is their life; they are rich in the forest. Therefore, there should be no inherent conflict or disruption to the symbiotic relationship that exists between the tribes and nature.
Respecting their land rights
Tribal peoples who live on their own land are invariably healthier, with a far better quality of life than the millions of impoverished citizens marginalized by growing inequality.
Forcing “development” or “progress” on tribal people does not make them happier or healthier. In fact, the effects are disastrous. The most important factor by far for tribal peoples’ well-being is whether their land rights are respected.
Outsiders’ projects should not be imposed
If they are to survive, indigenous people must control the changes they want to make to their own lives. Outsiders’ projects should not simply be imposed. Indigenous peoples should be given the chance to design and run their own projects.
Therefore, strategy should be ‘non-interference’ in their way of living and preserving distinct culture.
Adopt Integration approach
Strategy should be to help them grow in their own way with a long term goal of bringing them in mainstream. While assimilation approach of tribal development leads to identity crisis, isolation approach results in exclusion from the developmental achievement. Integrated Development Approach is a balanced strategy for tribal development
Improving indigenous peoples’ health cannot be achieved through clinics and medications alone: the major factors causing their poor heath are social, economic, political and legal.
Tribes people must be trained to administer treatment to their own people.
In reserved forest areas tribals should be made a companion in forest administration of area and be allowed to live. When migration is necessary rehabilitation should be provided in nearby area as knowledge of local forest is important for them.
The key to tribal peoples’ welfare is to ensure their land remains under their control. Where it has been taken, tribes need support to regain as much of it as possible. They can then rebuild an identity through reasserting their sense of their rightful place in the world. And they can tailor their own values to adapt to a changing world, just like the rest of us. Unless they control their own development, ultimately they won’t survive.
Conservation must accept the growing proof that tribal peoples are better at looking after their environment than anyone else. The huge sums spent on conservation must be given to the cheapest solution – upholding tribal peoples’ land rights.
Best Answer: Peace
Indigenous people are the descendants from a country’s aboriginal population, those who inhabited a country or a geographical region at the time when people of different cultures or ethnic origins arrived. They are often termed as “fourth world”. Indigenous peoples each have unique and distinctive cultures, languages, legal systems and histories. Most indigenous peoples have a strong connection to the environment and their traditional lands and territories.
Indigenous tribes of India
India is home to nearly 8.5% of indigenous population (census 2011). Some of these are:
Andaman & Nicobar Islands
Jammu and Kashmir
The indigenous people maintain a close relationship with land and forests. But they are the victims of past and present colonialism, and completely or partially deprived of the right to their own territory.
Promoting indigenous peoples’ participation in discussions and decisions on issues that concern them.( National human rights institutions, as independent bodies, should play an important role in bringing together representatives of Government and indigenous peoples)
Free, prior and informed consent is in :
adoption of legislation or administrative policies that affect indigenous peoples
undertaking of projects that affect indigenous peoples’ rights to land, territory and resources, including mining and other utilization or exploitation of resource
States must accord appropriate legal status, juridical capacity and other legal rights in connection with indigenous peoples’ ownership of land.( eg – Forest Rights Act)
Political Representation and participation
Less encroachment in tribal areas by non-tribal population
Measures to ensure that the Indigenous Peoples receive social and economic benefits that are culturally appropriate, and gender responsive.
Setting up Health and education centres with the prior consent of tribes in their areas.
Awareness for proper health and sanitation among these people.
Capacity building of government institutions to address social , political and economic issues of indigenous people.
Easily accessible Grievance redressal mechanism for indigenous people
Sensitisation of mainstream population
Indigenous peoples are the holders of unique languages, knowledge systems and beliefs and possess invaluable knowledge of practices for the sustainable management of natural resources. They have a special relation to and use of their traditional land. Thus, we must strive to protect this population and work towards their welfare.
3. Discuss the technology of GIS? What can be its application in areas of agriculture, defence and disaster management.
Introduction ( what is GIS):
A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer system for capturing, storing, checking, and displaying data related to positions on Earth’s surface. GIS can show many different kinds of data on one map. This enables people to more easily see, analyze, and understand patterns and relationships.
What is GIS technology?
1)GIS technology works on the principle of converting hard files like map etc into CAD based digitized form. Various information, for ex- soil type, crop pattern, rainfall distribution can be accommodated in different layers and can be put together in a single map to enable the management to take fast and efficient decisions. Real time images can be taken through satellites, UAV’s, planes and Digital ballons etc.
2) Data is recorded in Raster and Vector forms.
3) Programming languages normally used are JAVA, SQL, C++ etc.
Applications in agriculture:
*total cultivated area and actual cultivable land can easily be assessed with the use of GIS which helps in policy designing.
*underground irrigation sources are more accurately explored with less digging.
*integration of markets provides prevailing prices of crops which reduces cases of distress sell.
*crop specific quality of soil and use of fertilizer is determined by GIS that increases productivity.
Recently, RISAT 1 & 2 were launched to provide information during Kharif season when numerous clouds present.
Applications in defence:
*data collection and dissemination becomes faster that helps in early detection and mitigation of any threat to security. Interconnected intelligence system with beefed up surveillance techniques functions more efficiently.
*Making of maps for all areas, segregation of strategic areas and recognization of any part of the world enhances accessibility. Mapping- of vulnerable zones depending on enemy armies arsenal capabilities- strengthening counter-attack capabilities of such areas
*efficiency and accuracy increases whereas maintenance and operation cost decreases.
*GIS can help in strengthening military potential by checking cross-border infiltration activities thereby boosting defence surveillance activities.
Applications in disaster management:
*Predicting zones of high destruction in case of disaster- eg areas with high population density, low lying areas in case of flood related disasters etc and placing necessary services accordingly- fire-stations, cyclone relief bunkers, storm water drainage etc.
Mapping disaster related history of places to help predict future course of action & preparedness.
Mapping of seismic zones, vulnerable coastal areas, dams & reservoirs, wetlands & other geographical features etc for area specific disaster management plans.
During search & rescue operations, satellites like COSPAS SARSAT are being used to check for distress signals arising from disaster hit areas.
In India, GIS has been used by Odisha state disaster management under National Cyclone Risk Management Programme and during air dropping of relief in flood management in 2007 -08.
Re emphasize the role of GIS : Thus GIS has become an important tool in the hand of policy makers, government institution to make area specific approach to mitigate various kind of developmental challenges, disaster challenges, defence challenges etc.
Other functions of GIS can be mentioned.
Best answer: Gaurav
Geographical Information System is a graphic aided spatial analysis tool which helps in management of spatio-temporal information by embedding multiple level of data sets into maps. It is an interactive system aids in analysis, building inter-relation, visualization, comparison and interpretation. It offers following advantages:
Flexibility: system data can be easily edited and altered according to changing requirement
Representation: It provides condense form of graphical data representation which otherwise would have been cumbersome to plot on numerous maps and figures
Scalability: depending upon the requirement, scale of model can be changed
Recording, Retrieval and access
Multivariate inputs: GIS can work on number of unconventional variables thus aiding in easy comparison
It is because of these ease of convenience that GIS has widespread application in planning and development.
1) Pre Harvest: field level planning, feeder canal construction, local topography mapping, seed sowing lanes
2) During Harvest: boosting yield by predicting effect of temperature, precipitation, erosion control, soil health management, integrated pest management, nutrient management
3) Post Harvest: efficient storage,
4) Institutional: land record keeping in digital format, farm infra planning, precision agriculture
1) Surveillance: topography mapping and terrain evaluation, identifying blind spots, prospective danger zones, building hide outs, developing communication lines, unstable land identification
2) Response: magnetic and gravitational information, emergency aid supply through stable routes, inventory management, quick response routes, using weal terrain against enemy
Clearly GIS is a boon of 21st century technology. It finds limitless application in number of fields and ensures maximum efficiency in utilization of spatial resources for the benefit of mankind. In India NRSC is the the nodal agency which is utilizing this technology for nation’s progress and development.