IASbaba’s TLP 2016 [22nd March]: UPSC Mains GS Questions [HOT]: Synopsis

  • March 23, 2016
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IASbaba’s TLP 2016 [22nd March]: UPSC Mains GS Questions [HOT]: Synopsis


1. In 2014, the Border Security Force (BSF) retaliated heavily to the unprovoked shelling by Pakistan. Can you identify forces like BSF operating in various parts of our country? What is the mandate of these border security agencies? Discuss.

  • Intro:

Article 355 of the constitution enjoins upon the center the duty to protect the states from external threats ,under this article the security and safety of the territory of India are handled by two ministries,

The defense ministry: it protects the defends the country during external aggression and war

The home ministry: it is concerned with security of borders during peace time and border management

India currently follows “ONE BORDER, ONE FORCE” principle, which helps in effective and efficient border management.

  • Body:
  1. Border security force(BSF) : Raised in 1965 after the INDO-PAK War of 1965,Works under Ministry of Home Affairs, headed by Senior IPS officer

Area: protects Indian borders along Pakistan and Bangladesh

Mandate: to secure the borders during peace time and to prevent transnational crimes, including infiltration, arms and drug smuggling along Pakistan border and illegal immigration, FICNs, cattle smuggling etc along the Bangladesh border

  1. Indo Tibetian Border Police : 1992 works under Ministry of Home Affairs, headed by Senior IPS officer.

The force was raised with the intention of guarding the Indo-China border along the Himalayas from Karakoram in Ladakh to Diphu La in Arunachal Pradesh includes vigil on the northern borders, detection and prevention of border violations, promotion of a sense of security among the local populace, check on illegal immigration, trans-border smuggling and crimes, provision of security to sensitive installations and restoration of order in the event of disturbances

  1. Assam Rifles:

Mandate: protecting indo-Myanmar border, Paramilitary law enforcement, counter insurgency, armed response to civil unrest, counter terrorism

head: from army, Works under ministry of home affairs

4. SashastraSeema Bal: 1963

Mandate: protecting Indian borders along Nepal and Bhutan ,and prevention of smuggling in Arms, Narcotics and Illegal Immigration

Ministry: Ministry Of Home Affairs: headed by Senior IPS officer

  1. Indian Coast Guard: 1978, works under Ministry of Defense

Mandate: Protecting India’s maritime interest and enforcing Maritime Law and Pollution Control in Indian ocean region ,prevention of smuggling of arms ,narcotics and human trafficking along the ocean region


Write your opinion and conclude.


India is empowered with many security forces to guard it territory.

  1. Assam rifles, India’s oldest paramilitary force, with motto ‘Friends of the Hill People’, performs border security operations along with internal security through the conduct of counter insurgency. Of the 46 battalions, 15 are deployed along the 1,643-km border.
  2. Indo-Tibetan Border Police – ITBPF is a specialized mountain Force and most of the men are professionally trained mountaineers and skiers. It is deployed on Chinese border.
  • Indian Coast Guard – The mission of Indian Coast Guard is protection of India’s maritime interests and maritime law enforcement with jurisdiction over both territorial and international waters, including contiguous zone & exclusive economic zone. It works in close cooperation with the Indian Navy, Department of Fisheries, Department of Revenue (Customs) and the Central and State police forces.
  1. vi. Border Security Force – It is currently the world’s largest border guarding force and termed as the First Wall of Defence of Indian Territories. It was established in 1965 to man India’s Border with Pakistan.
  2. vii. SashastraSeema Bal – It is an armed border force raised in 1963 to counter the Chinese invasion. SSB is also engaged in Counter Insurgency operations in Jammu and Kashmir and Anti-naxal operations in Jharkhand and Bihar and participates in election duties

There are other security forces like CISF, National Security Guard, Railway Protection Force, Defence Security Corps which also helps in defend the nation.

2. The public infrastructure isn’t conducive to the differently abled. There have been recent policy decisions and Supreme Court directives in this regard. Enumerate them. Also suggest measures to ensure smooth and comfortable access to public facilities to differently abled.


1.26.8 million disabled population (Census 2011) in India.

  1. signatory to the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNCRPD).
  2. Articles 14 and 15 (2).

Recent policies and court directives:

  1. Accessible India Campaign’: All the airports, major railway stations and 4,000 key buildings will be made differently abled friendly, including ramps for wheelchairs or braille signage for the visually challenged.
  2. The National Policy for Persons with Disabilities,2006 has been formulated for Physical, Educational & Economic Rehabilitation of persons with disabilities
  3. Ratification of Marrakesh Treaty provide various books to be available in braille form for the blind scholars. Government also brought Mental Health policy to de-stigmatized mental illness.
  4. Supreme Court rulings;
    1. Civil writ petition on ‘Pooja Sharma case’: ensure accessibility for PWD in educational institutions
    2. ‘Javed Abidi’ case : provision of ambulifts and aisle chairs in airport
    3. PIL during Stephen Hawking visit filed by Javed Abidi: provision of ramps at all public places.


 PWD infrastructure should be incorporated in tenders and funding conditions of construction contracts.

# Strict implementation of punishments against non-complying public infrastructure

#Inclusion of rehabilitation engineers and technicians in the planning of public infrastructure

# Provision of ramps and Unisex public toilet ; wider doors in banks,elevators,ATMs,etc

# Accessible railings and low floor public transport and public spaces.

Best answer: cse2016 aspirant

Differently abled comprise 4-6% of the total population of India, but sadly proper emphasis has not been laid on making the public infrastructure barrier free for them. These barriers snatch their self dependence and dignity.

—-> Most of the residential and commercial buildings are not planned to provide proper ramp way, wide doors. etc to make them easily accessible for PwDs.

—-> Smooth sidewalks are absent.

—-> Public transport facilities in most cities are almost out of reach for them.

—-> Toilets accessible for differently abled are very rarely found creating sanitation problems.

Above factors makes their access and locomotion a challenge. Infrastructure is just not conductive for them.

Recognising the importance of providing proper facilities to the PwDs, government came up with various schemes and initiatives.

(1) ‘Accessible India’ campaign was launched on 3rd Dec, 2015 (International day for PwDs).

——> Rating index was devised to measure the accessibility for PwDs in corporate infrastructure.

——> Firms with high accessibility index will be given credit, ( such as tax exemption)

(2) PwD act (Equal Opportunity, Protection of Rights and Full Participation), 1995 was enacted to make them self dependent.

(3) Government signed UN convention on PwDs in 2007 which demand it to work for their development.

(4) CPWD has come up with guidelines on ‘Barrier Free Built Environment’ to make buildings and facilities PwDs friendly.

(5) National Fund for PwDs has been set up by the government.

(6) Tax deduction on devices used by PwDs has been provided in this year’s budget. For eg. on Braille books.

Supreme Court Directives :

(1) SC has directed government and municipal authorities to work on making cities barrier free.

(2) SC has prescribed 3% reservation for PwDs in government jobs and educational institutes.

Measure to ensure smooth and comfortable access to PwDs :

(1) It should be made legally binding for building constructor to follow guidelines on adopting necessary provisions for ensuring accessibility of PwDs.

(2) The yellow strip concept of DMRC to guide blinds and low floor buses for ease of boarding for wheelchair ridden people is a welcome move.

—–> Transport facilities providing door to door smooth connectivity for PwDs should be designed.

(3) Digital accessibility

—-> Apps can be developed for assisting PwDs to make their life easy.

—-> All websites should provide screen enlargement alternative to help partially blinds.

Change in society’s mindset towards PwDs is required. They are as smart as others, the only thing which they require is equal opportunity, accessibility so that they can participate to their full capacity in the society.

3. A city can’t be smart unless it facilitates fast and seamless movement of ambulances carrying patients in critical condition. A new concept of ‘green corridor’ has been introduced in some places. Discuss it’s features. Can it be a permanent solution. Critically analyse.


Cities are referred to as the “Engines of Economic Growth”, and with rapid development taking place there is an increasing need felt for “smart” city solutions which are both efficient and sustainable. Smart cities, with a vision to integrate ICT with management policies of a city’s asset (hospitals, schools, roads, etc), promises to put people first. In this regard creation of Green Corridor that facilitates fast and seamless movement of ambulances proves to be silver lining when increasing traffic has burdened roads and has become impediment to the movement of ambulance.


  1. Swift Navigation: Green corridor is a swift navigation management process for ambulances
  2. Smooth Movement: Green corridor are signal free stretches created to ensure unhindered movement of ambulances
  3. Coordinated Action: Once an ambulance is on the road, the driver calls the traffic police control room and informs theroute being undertaken. The information is transmitted to the traffic constables along the route via wireless system which is then cleared for the ambulance to pass.
  4. It is used for transporting critical patients and organs for transplantation.
  5. Ad-hoc structure- It is a temporary structure created at short notice by diverting or stopping traffic
  6. It is created mostly in metro cities where traffic worsens movement and help in saving lives

Analysis: It can’t be a permanent solution

Making it a permanent feature has practical difficulties

  • One of the crucial elements is related to the understanding of the green corridor being constituted of a mix of elements being of both technical and organisational nature, and that only corridors where all elements are interacting, will be successful.
  • Not much suitable when multiple emergencies occur at the same time. It would become a cause of daily inconvenience to the public.
  • Creation of green corridor leads to traffic snarls and burdens the already strained traffic scenario
  • Citizen education is the most challenging part, considering the already heavy traffic and desperation of people to reach their offices and homes
  • For cities with old cranky highways and roads, it is very difficult to equip them in real time with Green Corridors. Thus air ambulances should serve our needs.
  • Economic viability might also be a challenge

Analysis: It can be a permanent solution

As a permanent provision, it would be more beneficial to build ambulance dedicated lanes. It will result into seamless movement of ambulances. Upcoming Tier II and Tier III cities can be ideal cities for permanent green corridors if planned rightly and loopholes are plugged.

Green corridor sounds promising, especially in cases of inter-state organ transport for transplantation where the window period is hardly 5-6 hours.

Further, creating awareness among people to give passage to ambulance would also be beneficial.


But, considering its positives, these small negatives can be overcome and the green corridor can be implemented. In addition to these, certain cities can integrate the road, air and water transport too. The angle of compassion in this regard can be a new trait of our society.


Best Answer: Nikhil

The concept of smart city is an open ended one. It includes robust basic infrastructure, solid waste management, good public transport, use of technology to facilitate better life, etc. Above all, the hallmark of smart city is the best management practices. In this background a city can’t be smart unless it facilitates fast and seamless movement of ambulances carrying patients in critical conditions.

On Indian roads the traffic has increased tremendously. This acts as an impediment to the movement of ambulance. A lot of precious lives can be saved if patients or organs that are donated are moved swiftly. To solve this problem the concept of ‘green corridor’ has been introduced. Its features –

1) It is a management practice of traffic police

2) dedicated lane for movement of ambulance – that is, the traffic is cleared to pass the ambulance

3) sense of unity and fraternity – the whole city makes way for urgent cause, without knowing the gender, religion, caste, etc. of the patient.

4) time of traveling of ambulance reduces significantly

5) The information flow, the co-ordination and management of the whole assignment of transporting the patient/organ indicates a new height of team work.

The green corridor is a very good initiative and it can be a permanent solution. Indian people are generally sympathetic to the good cause. The green corridor initiative will also strengthen the unity and integrity of country.

However, there are certain worries of implementing green corridor –

1) All the other activities on the concerned route gets temporarily suspended. In this attempt, certain important work can by delayed and this may result in resentment.

2) This is a costly practice.

3) a slight mis-coordination can be problematic.

But, considering its positives, these small negatives can be overcome and the green corridor can be implemented. In addition to these, certain cities can integrate the road, air and water transport too. The angle of compassion in this regard can be a new trait of our society.

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