1. Tourism has great potential to transform the lives of local people. Suggest a roadmap to integrate tourism with the lives of the local populace in a manner that creates opportunities for sustainable development of the region.
India on cultural, traditional and varied geographical locations, beyond comparison is blessed with unique and diverse skills, with myriad dance forms, musical instruments, handicrafts, food items and skill sets that has from time immemorial proved a great attraction to global community.
The 12th Plan document represented a significant departure from a primary focus on international tourist arrivals and foreign exchange earnings being the principal objective and attempts to integrate the role of tourism in accordance with the Millennium Development Goals and the Sustainable Development Goals.
The benefit of tourism is that it can create economic activity in fragile, remote areas with relatively poor infrastructure and generate local employment amongst a wide spectrum of people with varying skill sets.
To realize its true potential of vitalizing its tourism assets, there is a need for a roadmap to integrate tourism with the lives of the local populace (Choose any 5 points)
Government tourism programs and policies should ensure the sustainability of local and indigenous communities and minimize adverse impacts on them.
Tourism should operate within a framework whereby local and indigenous peoples can reap the full benefits of the value chain of the tourism industry.
Recognition of sovereignty for local lands and territories, and with that the recognition of local organizations as the sole interlocutors.
Comprehensive planning should build tourism into the land use plans, but always under local management.
Local groups should also track impact evaluation and monitoring of tourism’s environmental and cultural impacts.
Government should provide support as requested by local groups for planning, information exchange and capacity building.
National government should help to build local capacity to take up the key decision making role concerning cultural knowledge and practices, and the biodiversity in local territory
Development of Tourist Sites: Places with geographical/cultural /historical/ecological importance should be identified & better infrastructure should be developed around them.
Promoting traditional folk arts & Handicrafts: Govt. should give support and motivation to folk artists to perform their arts at tourist sites. Traditional markets/Haats should be created to give boost to traditional arts. Also handicrafts, food products & other indigenous arts need to be brought under GI protection so that this sector generates employment to local communities as well as attract tourists.
Local people must receive assistance and training so they get opportunities of being promoted in tourism-related professions or start a business themselves.
Cite examples with some explanations – (Choose any 3 points)
Pro-poor tourism is defined as tourism that generates net benefits for the poor. Pro-poor tourism is not a specific product or sector of tourism, but an approach to the industry. It involves a range of stakeholders operating at different levels, from micro to macro. Stakeholders include government, the private sector and civil society, as well as the poor themselves who act as both producers and decision makers.
Agri-Tourismshould be developed where visitors can help out on a working farm, buy
produce from a farm shop or be involved in other leisure activities on the farm’s land. This will help in development of Agriculture sector & indirectly employment.
Market tourism by relating directly to conservation efforts and to sustainable biodiversity
Culture-centric tourism (with explanation) – Develop tourism hand in hand with the revitalization of indigenous culture
Economy-tourism (with explanation)
Rural Tourism (with explanation)
Health tourism or medical tourism packages (with explanation)
All stakeholders should provide different ‘tourism’ packages in association with an airline.
With India’s ideology of ‘Atithi Devo Bhav, a tourist holds the status of ‘Guest’ and society plays the role of a ‘Host’. The future of tourism in India is certainly bright but we do have a long road ahead. The industry however needs to grow carefully and in a sustainable manner. Identifying Innovative and unconventional tourist places, promotion of destinations yet unexplored, hold the key for successful entrepreneurship and sustenance of tourism in India.
Best answer: CSE2016 aspirant
India is endowed with rich and diverse culture. Traditional folk arts and handicrafts are not getting proper due today. Artisans are leaving their traditional jobs and turning non-skilled labours in agriculture fields and industries, where the living standards are deplorable and incomes are meagre.
Tourism sector can solve the problems of local people in leading self sustainable lives by
(1) preserving culture and hence valuing their skills
(2) improving the living standards of artisans
(3) generate employment opportunities for other local people in allied tourism industries.
(4) attract the attention of authorities to the grievances of locals like lack of PHCs, schools, roads, etc.
Roadmap to integrate tourism with lives of local populace :
(1) Creating tourist spots :
—-> The places of scenic beauty or historical importance should be marked.
—-> Enclaves like Open Air Theaters around ponds can be established.
—-> Places with historical importance attached to it can be turned into museums.
—-> Ticketing counters can be created at the entry points of such places. This will create more employment opportunities and regular income sources for locals.
(2) Encouraging folk arts :
—-> Folk artists can be motivated to perform in the tourist enclaves created like OATs.
—-> Training institutes for folk arts can be established in the towns.
(3) Restaurants providing local cuisines :
—-> Properly built restaurants can be set up which provides tourists chance to taste local cuisines.
—-> Roadside dhabas can be provided makeover, making them clean and hygienic. This will attract more tourists to dhabas.
(4) Renovation of old havelis :
—-> The condition of houses of ministers / royals of Mughal era or earlier is deteriorating.
—-> No proper care has been taken.
—-> Many of these houses are beautifully built with large courtyards, which portray the lifestyle of earlier times.
—-> These houses can be renovated and converted into tourist spots.
(5) Educating locals
—-> Locals should be taught the concepts of hospitality which will help them attend the tourists.
Recently, a village near Delhi, name Jauntia, was adopted by an MP under Saansad Aadarsh Gram Yojana. Ministry of urban affairs proposed to convert it into tourism hub, which will lead to progress and attract the attention of private firms and other shareholders to develop this village. The initiatives like this should be followed for other regions also.
2. Discuss the significance of small airports in India. How they can become engines of growth for the economy? Discuss.
Airways are one of the fastest modes of transportation and have potential to connect each corner of the country efficiently via airports. It is important to develop small airports of tier 2 & tier-3 cities to give access of airways to millions.
Airport infrastructure is very significant for keeping pace of economic development, providing fast mobility of people and goods and a major carrier of foreign tourists in India (the second largest forex earner). However, apart from few select cities, the regional connectivity infrastructure has remained below expectation.
1.Employment:It creates employment opportunities as lot of man power is required for construction and maintenance of airports.
2.Connectivity:It helps in improving connectivity between the various parts of country.
3.Tourism: Many small cities are spots of tourism. Thus airports also help in development of tourism industry.
4.Help in emergency: Many times in cases of a serious disease or to meet their dear ones in critical situation people need to quickly go to other cities .This need is fulfilled by the airports.
5.Trade & commerce: It helps in movement of goods inside country and also from other countries.
6.Political: High political profile leaders come to small cities for important purposes like recent visit of Shinzo Abe in Varanasi. The airports provide means of transport for these visits.
7. Less pollution & more eco friendly vis a vis roadways.
Bringing in economic reforms by increased competition which will ultimately lead to better infrastructure developments, assets creation and more utilisation of the current exclusive service.
More employment generation, skill building by increased FDI through Make In India, Skill India.
Principle of open skies by delimiting the airspace within the territory – more trade, business ventures will usher in growth of economy.
Freight & cargo handling will be increased – more revenue generation.
No frills airport – less cost & time to setup & function – similar to no frills airlines.
Blooming E-commerce – Air connectivity to smaller cities, fast transportation of cargos will boost the e-commerce sector giving boost to the economy.
a) Viability of airports and flights in distant location is difficult and Viability Gap Funding on part of Govt will be costly.
a) AAI’s 50Cr limit is unrealistic.
c) Local agencies for MRO, skills etc is not there.
With India lacking far behind nations like China, US in infrastructural developments, there rises a possibility with initiatives like AMRUT, Smart City to transform Indian landscape & make smaller cities the keystone to shape modern India’s future.
Best answer: Nikhil
The burden of transport of goods and people in India is heavily on the roads and rails. With increasing population, economic growth and mobility of people we need different modes of transport. In this regard small airports are important.
Small airports are those airports which provide minimum required services to the airlines. These are built in medium to big town and mostly provide domestic air transport services. The significance of small airports in India are as follow –
No-frill airports are cheaper.
More small airports help in increasing the density of air connectivity.
greater domestic connectivity by air reduces the time of traveling significantly, this has many direct and indirect socio-economic benefits.
Development and employment opportunities in locality,
More supply of air services will bring down the cost of traveling and thus help in getting more Indian on air. It is dream of common Indian to fly once in his life. Small airport can become engine of growth for economy –
Development of Air service industry – more skilled labors, engineers, managers, etc. get employments.
development of aviation fuel industry.
speedy transport of goods and people.
lessening the burden on roads and rails – more safe and convenient traveling by rails and roads – this also has direct and indirect benefits to economy.
air ports are generally followed by high class malls, hotels, etc. this helps in more development.
However, along with these positives, there are certain negatives too. Pollution of caused by air travel damages ozone, the issue of land acquisition in India, corruption, rising inequality, etc. Nevertheless more connectivity is need of hour and air-connectivity provides a good solution. We can also explore the water connectivity which is more ecology friendly. In the long run we need integrated traveling solution with integration of rail, road, air and water transport services. In that direction small airports are a good start.
3. How far the extension of the Panchayati Raj governance in scheduled areas been successful to bring positive changes at ground? Analyse. Also suggest ways to improve local participation in these areas.
Indian government in 1992 passed the 73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Acts, which empowered panchayats and municipalities with a vision of local self-governance, but was not extended to the Schedule 5 states,
The Bhuria Committee in 1995 formulated a three-tier structure to extend the panchayati raj functions in the scheduled areas. Consequently Panchayats (Extension to Scheduled Areas) Act,
1996 was enacted to extend panchayats to schedule 5 states.
The fundamental spirit of PESA is that it does not delegate powers but devolves them to the village-level gram sabhas, paving the way for participatory democracy.
gram sabha, which will exercise command over natural resources, resolve disputes and manage institutions such as schools and cooperatives under it
Above it will be a gram panchayat, an elected body of representatives of each gram sabha, also to function as an appellate authority for unresolved disputes at the lower level. At the top of it will be a block- or taluk-level body.
When it was enacted, PESA was seen as a legislative revolution as it empowered gram sabhas to take decisions on important and contested tribal matters such as enforcing a ban on the sale and consumption of intoxicants, ownership of minor forest produce, power to prevent alienation of land and to restore unlawfully alienated land, management of village markets, control over money lending, an land acquisition.
Along with this, it made it mandatory for all legislation in the scheduled areas to be in conformity with the customary law, social and religious practices and traditional management practices of the community.
PESA comes under the Fifth Schedule, which mandates tribal advisory councils headed by chief ministers to oversee tribal affairs and also gives extrajudicial, extra-constitutional powers to the Governors of each State to intervene in matters where they see tribal autonomy being compromised
1) State Governments like Odisha still to make rules to implement it.
2) Government taking Panchayats as a unit instead of Gram Sabha as mentioned in act to formulate policies.
3) Lack of tribals/women in developmental committees formed by Government.
4) Forcible land acquisitions taking place by organizing fake Gram Sabhas.
5) 1997, Samatha judgement gave unfettered authority to Governors regarding transfer of tribal of land to Government & vice versa altering balance of power as specified in Act.
6)PESA is implemented by Ministry of tribal affairs and Ministry of Rural development which creates problems of coordination and overlapping
7) corruption and lethargy among the bureaucracy is the major hurdle for the effective implementation of the act
1) Special cell to be created in Tribal Ministry for looking at problems of affected people.
2) Report of special cell should be mandated to be placed on floor of the house.
3) SC order to implement PESA in both letter & spirit should be strictly adhered to.
4) Regular monitoring of cases of “fake gram sabhas” by Special Police team containing maximum tribal community members.
5) Regular elections being conducted & responsibility given to DC to overlook problems arising.
India has been a nation with rich & old culture diversifying in various regions, onus falls on Government to look into administrative & political concerns to bridge trust deficit underlying in these areas
Best answer : SVSR
Since the Panchayat laws does not applicable to the areas in fifth schedule, the Panchayat Raj Extension of Services Act was enacted to extend the Panchayat system of governance to these scheduled areas without disturbing their protected cultural and traditional fabric. So, it is applicable to the 9 states in the fifth schedule.
How far it is succeeded to bring positive changes at ground level?
1) PESA granted financial and functional autonomy to the Gram Sabha in a 3 tier Panchayat administration.
2) For effective implementation of schemes, PRIs need to get permission from the Gram Sabha to implement development activities, mineral exploration, licences etc., in these areas. Many tribal belts in the regions of N.AP and Odisha, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand etc., dictated the terms for these activities to secure their interests against exploitation.
3) Main role for Gram Sabhas in the identification of beneficiaries for welfare and poverty alleviation schemes, PDS etc. Many tribals in different regions got benefitted from these activities.
4) Granted reasonable political autonomy and ensured representation in proportion with population while securing tribal seats. Reasonable representation in the political institutions including legislatures paved way for recognition of tribal voices. (eg. POSCO steel plant issue in Odisha).
5) Tax levy powers of the Gram Sabha increased the financial resources with them and had seen comparatively better social services like PHC, primary schools, laying all weather roads etc.
1) Development practices completely left over to the Gram Sabha wherein majority of the people are illiterate and dominated by the higher castes and dominant sections of the society.
2) In many areas, powers are not properly and uniformly devolved and resulted in sub-optimal performance of these institutions. One such issue is limiting taxing powers and defying the recommendations of State Finance Commissions.
3) Infrequent conduct of Gram Sabhas and decisions were taken by the local leaders. (eg. the recent decision of the MHR government to shift forest rights of the tribals to MoEF).
4) No effective agenda for generating awareness on functioning and political rights of these marginalised classes.
Ways to increase local participation:
1) Conducting awareness programmes with the help of civil society and NGOs and encourage participative democracy.
2) Using IT and technology like video recording of Gram Sabha debates and discussions – making the local government officials like MPDOs responsible and accountable for this – to reduce discretion and influence of dominant class.
3) Granting reasonable financial powers to the Gram Sabha on par with the IXth Schedule as mentioned in the 73rd Amendment Act.
4) Encouraging the local youth and training them for political and administrative participation.
These scheduled areas are the highly exploited and least developed regions of the country. Unfortunately, local people are threatened to the outside interests and pushing their commercial interests against their livelihood interests. Therefore, it is the moral and Constitutional responsibility of the State to ensure proper development of these regions