1. What do you understand by ‘probity in governance’? How is it different from honesty or uprightness? Discuss.
Probity literally means strict adherence to a code of ethics based on undeviating honesty.
But probity in Governance is much more than just Honesty and uprightness.
Probity in Governance is required to tackle the menace of corruption. Corruption is an abuse of public resources or position in public life for private gain. The scope for corruption increases when control on the public administrators is fragile and the division of power between political, executive and bureaucracy is ambiguous.
Probity in governance is basic requirement for successful operation of governance and for socio-economic growth of country. It is defined as a risk management approach ensuring procedural integrity. It is concerned with procedures, processes and systems rather than outcomes.
The term probity entails integrity, uprightness and honesty. For Government workers and agencies, maintaining probity involves more than simply avoiding dishonest conduct. It involves applying public sector values such as impartiality, accountability and transparency. Probity is also considered as being incorruptible. However, probity goes beyond the avoidance of being dishonest because it is determined by intangibles like personal and societal values. It is also regarded as strict obedience to a code of ethics based on undeviating honesty, especially in commercial (monetary) matters and beyond legal requirements. Ensuring probity in public sector activities is part of every public official’s duty to adopt processes, practices and behaviour that enhance and promote public sector values and interests.
The Seven Principles of Public Life: (Only for information)
Holders of public office should take decisions solely in terms of the public interest. They should not do so in order to gain financial or other material benefits for themselves, their family, or their friends.
Holders of public office should not place themselves under any financial or other obligation to outside individuals or organizations that might influence them in the performance of their official duties.
In carrying out public business, including making public appointments, awarding contracts, or recommending individuals for rewards and benefits, holders of public office should make choices on merit.
Holders of public office are accountable for their decisions and actions to the public and must submit themselves to whatever scrutiny is appropriate to their office.
Holders of public office should be as open as possible about all the decisions and actions that they take. They should give reasons for their decisions and restrict information only when the wider public interest clearly demands.
Holders of public office have a duty to declare any private interests relating to their public duties and to take steps to resolve any conflicts arising in a way that protects the public interest.
Holders of public office should promote and support these principles by leadership and example.”
Probity in Governance also elucidates that apart from the traditional civil service values of efficiency, integrity, accountability and patriotism, it is essential for civil officers to instruct and adopt ethical and moral values including probity in public life, respect for human rights and compassion for the downtrodden and commitment to their welfare.
2. Do you think ‘bureaucracy’ as a term has lost its relevance in a system that talks about ‘public services’ that suit and serve the larger public good? Analyse.
The answer should be within 150 words.
Intro can be definition of what is meant by term bureaucracy.
-There is no yes or no here. If yes then you have to provide sufficient points, same for no.
-Start with what is public service and how different it is from bureaucracy.
-Mention what are the principles of public service and requirement for public services like humanitarian touch, citizen oriented service, soft skills etc.
-Mention the darker sides of bureaucracy and how it is hampering public service delivery like red tapism, corruption, license raj, inefficiency etc. You can also write good side of this for a line or two.
End with saying but how this pre independence era system is still necessary and how they have been able to implement many policies of government and how they are able to maintain the continuity and cannot be written off as redundant.
3. The salary and perks of civil servants are not commensurate with the amount of work and responsibilities that they are burdened with. Do you think the concept of ‘public service’ needs a relook in this regard? Examine.
Start with mentioning about how recent revised pay commission has hiked salary but still they fail to provide what a private sector pays for less responsibility comparably.
-Mention the ill effects of lesser salary and how it affects the efficiency of the bureaucrats and others.
-Pressure from family and friends quarter might lead him to take unethical steps.
-How it might also affect his psychology and his commitment for service is weakened and he always looks for opportunity in private, leaving service in mid-way.
-Also mention about how increased pay will automatically improve the public service in form of more efficiency, commitment etc.
-Also mention few points about public service, how it provides power to change the society, serve the public, opportunity for self-actualization and satisfaction and how with every passing year there has been increase in allowances and perks and soon it might reach good levels.
End with saying how money alone cannot provide satisfaction in life but there are others things in life which is necessary to make it worth and meaning full. But also being inside system how they can bring about changes in salary system.
4. “The controversy surrounding the recent spate of resignation of governors indicates that we are still unable to determine where constitutionality, democratic norms and political ethics intersect.” Why is the office of Governor important in the Indian polity? What are the issues associated with the appointment of Governors in India? Discuss.
The Governor is appointed by the President of India on the advice of the Council of Ministers for the period of five years. Unlike the President of India, there is no procedure for the impeachment of a Governor, but he/she could be removed by the President on the advice of the Prime Minister on grounds of gross delinquency, namely corruption, bribery and violation of the Constitution. But the practice has been different from what is laid down in the Constitution and the governor’s position has always been an issue of contention since history; Governors have been removed only due to a change of government without citing any substantial reason.
Importance of the office of Governor:
THE FEDERAL structure of Indian democracy ensures that States, like the Centre, have a parliamentary form of government headed by the Governor. The post of Governor is thus a vital link between the Centre and the States.
The governor of a state is the repository of the executive powers of the state, which are exercised by him in accordance with the Constitution of India. He has the right to be kept informed of the decisions of the state ministry.
He appoints the chief minister and on his advice, other ministers and several important state officials such as the advocate general, the chairman and members of the State Public Service Commission.
Though the Governor has no powers to appoint the judges of the State High Court, but it is provided by the Article 217 that he will be consulted by the president before such an appointment is made.
Among the legislative powers of the governor is the right to address the legislature and to send messages to it. He can summon the state legislature, prorogue either house or dissolve the legislative assembly.
Every bill passed by the state legislature must receive the governor’s assent before it can become a law. He may give his assent to a bill or withhold it or he may reserve it for the consideration of the president.
He may also return a Bill, other than a money bill, to the legislature for reconsideration, but if it is passed a second time, the governor may not withhold his assent to it. At the same time, no money bill can be introduced in the legislative assembly except on the governor’s recommendation.
The constitution authorises the governor to promulgate ordinances during the period when the state legislature is not in session (Article 213).
Finally, the governor, like the President, has the power to nominate certain members to the state legislature. He nominates some members in the State Legislative Council, if the state has bicameral legislature, who have special knowledge or practical experience in the field of art, science, literature, cooperative movement and social services.
He can also nominate one member in the State Legislative Assembly from the Anglo-Indian community if he is feels that they are not adequately represented.
The judicial powers of the governor includes the power of granting pardon, or reducing or commuting sentences of any person convicted of any offence against any law relating to matters to which the executive powers of the state extends.
The governor has the power to make a report to the president whenever a situation arises in which the government of a state cannot be carried on in accordance with provisions of the Constitution (Article 356), thereby inviting the president to impose ‘President’s Rule’.
It is important to note here that merely the governor of Jammu & Kashmir has the power to impose ‘Governor’s Rule’ under section 92 of the Constitution of that state. However, it may be noted that the president of India is not bound to act on the governor’s advice in this or any other matter.
Issues associated with the appointment of Governors in India
Much to our disappointment though, the Constitution is practically silent on the procedure for appointment and removal of Governors. The Governor is to be appointed by the President (Article 155) and will hold office as long as he enjoys the confidence of the President (Article 156), is all that the Constitution states. This in essence means that the Central government is given full powers as far as appointment and removal are concerned; however, over the years a convention has developed whereby the Central government consults the Chief Minister concerned before appointing the Governor.
Due to the unclear procedure of appointment and removal of governor, as mentioned in the constitution, the ruling parties over time have used the office as a way to reward loyalists, by removing the person appointed to the post, by the previous ruling party.
Chief Minister of the state is not consulted in the appointment of the governor and hence governor tends to be more loyal to the centre.
The role of the governor of an Indian state is clearly political even if his office is constitutional. That is a contradiction that lies at the heart of most controversies about the appointment, role and removal of governors. No government in independent India has tried to change that.
Best answer: El Nino
Article 153 of the Constitution requires that there shall be a Governor for each State. The post of Governor is a vital link between the Centre and the States. Following are its importance in Indian polity –
To maintain check and balance :
Constitutional values if violated by the state can be checked effectively. Governor also recommends President rule in the state if there is a breakdown of Constitutional machinery.
Governor can reserve certain bill passed by the state legislature for the approval of the president.
Governor has to apply his mind to see that a stable Government is formed in a state.
Other functions like s/he summons and prorogues the assembly session, gives expert advice to the chief Minister etc.
The Governors have been endowed with certain special powers with regard the Fifth Scheduled Areas to bring about positive impact on the tribals living in these regions.
Following are the issue related with the appointment of the governor:
Constitution does not provide clear guidelines for the appointment of governor.
Chief Minister of the state is not consulted in the appointment of the governor and hence governor tends to be more loyal to the centre .
Appointment of governor has been politicized. Loyal party members and retired bureaucrats are generally given the post.
The way ahead lies in following the message of president of India. He said that governors must play their assigned role while respecting the distinct authority and responsibility vested in the executive, the judiciary and the legislature, and help create a harmonious relationship between the Centre and the States.
5. What is “Fire & Forget” missile? How will it help in nuclear diversification in India? Discuss.
Define what is fire and forget missile technology. Fire-and-forget refers to weapons that need no further intervention once fired. Thus a target need not be “designated” by a laser, which would expose the designator during the weapon’s flight or be in line of sight of the target.
-Write about India recently achieving QUAD capability i.e. ability to launch nuclear weapons from land, sea, air and submarine platforms with recent induction of INS Arihant.
-Write about how presently Brahmos is the only among fire and forget nuclear capable and how others should be developed.
-With raise in defense expenditure, how this technology can be developed in hypersonic, supersonic, cruise, ballistic nuclear missile technologies.
-Mention about each missile and how this technology can be introduced in them to provide diversified nuclear options to our forces.
-Also include about how different launching surfaces like Land, Air, submarine etc. if used can give diverse options that can be used for different kind of terrain and targets.
-How this diversification will help in protecting our security and strategic interest and act as deterrence in case of threat and neutralize the enemy forces in case of attack.
End with saying how this third generation technology has brought in reduction of human errors in missile targeting and how this technology can be used not just in nuclear but also other smaller attacks to eliminate individual or specific target without harming other surrounding environment.