1. What is ‘Scientific Revolution’? When did it take place? Why? Also discuss the contribution of famous personalities during this phase of history.
It refers to the era where the focus from God shifted towards human kind and their power to reason. The use of reason, which bought transformation marked the beginning of scientific revolution.
As science became the source of knowledge, nature was given scientific, logical and mathematical understanding.
Scientific Revolution was a phase during which the flawed concepts established by the Church regarding physical events were replaced by hypotheses that could be verified through experiments.
It took place gradually and inevitably since Europe was reeling under Dark Age and period of orthodoxy and irrational church laws. To make people aware of the truth and bring scientific and logical thinking into their lives, many personalities contributed hugely towards Scientific Revolution including:-
1) Helios-centric Theory of Copernicus stating sun is at the centre of solar system defied the pre-existing exact opposite views.
2) Telescope by Galileo expanded knowledge about space.
3) Gravitational Law of Newton
4) Kepler finding about the elliptical path of the planets that clarified different seasons.
Scientific revolution refers to the historical changes in thought and belief, to changes in social and institutional organization that unfolded in Europe roughly between 1550-1700. It’s most radical contribution being separation of science from religion.
REASONS FOR SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
1) Copernicus’s model of a helio centric universe– considered to be the beginning of scientific reason and thought.
2) Separation of religion and science– up until the medieval ages, scientific phenomenon were confined to the realm of religion.
3) Invention of press– made dissemination of knowledge easier.
4) Emergence of scientific societies– Royal Society of London, French Academy of Sciences which aimed to promote expansion of knowledge and growth of scientific ideas.
1) Nicholas Copernicus– advocated the helio-centric theory, disbanded views of Aristotle about earth being the center of the universe.
2) Vesavilius– performed autopsies on human corpses to assemble the first human skeleton, discrediting Galen’s views in medicine.
3) William Gilbert– laid the foundations theory of magnetism and electricity.
4) Tycho Brache & Kepler– Collected astronomical data of planets and Kepler proposed the 3 laws of planetary motion.
5) Sir Francis Bacon– outlined a new system of logic based on reduction, contributed to the development of Scientific Method.
6) Galileo Galilei– improved the telescope, developed mathematical approach to study motion of falling bodies, observed sunspots.
7) William Harvey– demonstrated blood circulation in humans, pumping of heart.
8) Leeuwenhoek– invention of microscope, opening up the world of microbiology.
9) Isaac Newton– proposed the universal law of gravitation, mathematical analysis of science. He advocated the idea of experimentation to prove scientific theory which became the keystone of modern science.
Scientific revolution thus paved way for the Age of Reason and Enlightenment and subsequently building upon it’s applications- the Industrial Revolution.
2.What is ‘Enlightenment’? Discuss. What were the core concepts that drove enlightenment in Europe? Discuss.
Introduction: (write about the time line and places where enlightenment took place)
Enlightenment or ‘the age of reason’ was the movement that began in 1600s and reached its height in mid-1700s which stressed the ideas of human rights, the form of government based on self-rule and democracy.
Enlightenment centered on reason as the primary source of authority and legitimacy and proposed many advanced ideas like liberty, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government, Doctrine of separation of power and secularism.
It was the driving force behind the movements for democracy and played an important role in American (1776), French (1789) and Russian Revolutions (1905, 1971).
Core Concepts of Enlightenment:
Truth can be discovered only by using logic and providing proof
Scientific and rational thought will lead to an improved human existence
Natural laws could be used to examine and understand all aspects of society and human nature
All human beings are born free to choose their life
Skepticism of religious superstition’s, institutionalized church and Government authority.
Emphasized on ideas of equality and human dignity
Its moral duty of every human being to pursue happiness
And not to prevent others from achieving their own
Its humanities goal to continue to improve oneself, its civilization and its understanding of world.
6) Progress: It is humanity’s goal to continue to improve upon itself, its civilization, and its understanding of the world.
Enlightenment thinkers believed that society and humankind could improve.
Write a brief conclusion.
Best Answer: DHARA
Enlightenment or ‘the age of reason’ was the movement that began in 1600s and reached its height in mid-1700s which stressed the ideas of human rights, the form of government based on self-rule and democracy.
It was the driving force behind the movements for democracy and played an important role in American (1776), French(1789) and Russian revolutions(1905, 1971).
Causes for enlightenment where born out of the following events which defied the authority of Church –
– the era of re-birth where new ideas in art, science, politics, literature etc.,
– focus on humanity rather than divinity through the art of Da Vinci, Raphael etc.,
– Scientific revolutions questioned the blind faith
– Rise of national consciousness through development of local languages
The CORE CONCEPTS that drove enlightenment were –
A) REASON – thinkers believed that truth can be discovered through reason/logical thinking
B) NATURE – belief in natural laws of politics and economics
C) HAPPINESS – Church’s view of happiness after death was opposed by well-being on earth
D) LIBERTY – Philosophers envied the liberties that a democratic government in England offered
E) PROGRESS – society can be benefitted through scientific revolution
F) SEPARATION OF POWERS – Montesquieu was against central authority
G) BASIC HUMAN RIGHTS – Locke, Harrington and Milton said no government can infringe basic rights of man
Thus an enlightened Europe paved the way for the future democratic world starting from Europe.
Q.3 Examine the factors that caused the American Revolution. What is the legacy of this revolution? Discuss.
This is a very straight forward question. You can expect 2-3 questions like this in paper one. Now, you need to remember that these questions are a trap. Almost all the sincere candidates would know the answer of this question and that too in great detail.
The art of writing is that, you should be able to consolidate your thoughts in around 200 words and finish your answer.
In this answer people have explained the individual Acts and thinkers. That was not required.
Another important point is, there are separate marks for introduction and conclusion in the UPSC key. Never miss that, even if you write just a line.
Since the answers that we have selected are too detailed, there is no need for a separate synopsis; you can read these answers to conclude the topic. But remember that these are not the ideal answers as they have breached the word limit by a huge margin.
Best Answer 1: Hermione Granger
American Revolution was a political uprising that took place between 1765-1783 during which colonists in 13 American colonies rebelled against the Crown rule of Britain subsequently declaring independence in 1776. It was a result of the exploitative rule of Britain over America.
MAJOR CAUSES OF AMERICAN REVOLUTION
1) Political causes-
– Colonial and imperialistic policy of Britain
– No representation of Americans in legislature. Local bodies where they had representation were ineffective.
– This led to the demand for ‘No taxation without representation’.
2) Economic causes-
– Mercantilist policy of Britain with the passing of Navigation Act, Enumerated Commodities Act, Iron Act, Sugar Act, Hat Act and Woolen Act that negatively impacted American economy.
– Crown’s proclaimation that prevented Americans from expansion beyond Appalachian Mountains.
– Payment of losses incurred by British during the 7 years war was done on American exchequer.
– Heavy and opressive taxation laws like Stamp Act, Currency Act, Townshend Act etc.
3) Socio-cultural causes-
– American society was open and cosmopolitant whereas British society was rigid and feudalistic.
– Ideological developments, influence of Enlightenment, republicanism, liberalism.
– Individuals like Thomas Paine, Samuel Adams and Benjamin Franklin spread awareness among Americans about true nature of British Rule.
LEGACY OF AMERICAN REVOLUTION
1) Establishment of the first republican democracy after overthrowing a European empire served as a model for other colonies.
2) Inspired future revolutions like French Revolution, Russian Revolution, Haitian Revolution, Latin American war of Independence.
3) Democratic ideals of the revolution inspired changes in position of women in the society with the fading ideal of patriarchy, liberalising women.
4) Bill of rights enshrined in the American Constitution (first written constitution) gave way to the idea of fundamental rights.
(Note: Intro and conclusion are missing in this answer.)
Best Answer 2: Ghalib
American revolution was a result of exploiting approach of Britain towards America. We can divide the factors behind revolution in below sections:
Representation: Governor and Military Chief used to get appointed by British crown and they used to have final veto regarding policies/administration and governance. Americans wanted to have representation in the administration.
Enlightenment: The American society was liberal and progressive. The thoughts of enlightenment regarding republic were quite popular there and hence people were becoming against the imperialism and monarchs. Benjamin Franklin proposed, “JOIN OR DIE”.
Exploiting Policies of Britain: British parliament wanted to exploit American colonies for their benefits. They passed several laws to control trade and commerce in America. Some of the exploiting acts are as follows –
Navigation Act : Only British ships can enter America
Staple Act: American ships will need to go to Britain before going to any other country directly.
Enumerated Commodities Act: America can export Sugar, Cotton, Tobacco and Indigo to Britain exclusively.
Currency Act: America can not have their own currency.
Stamp Tax: Tax on official documents and news paper
Tea Tax: Tax on importing tea
Iron Act/Woollen Act/Hat Act: These items can be imported from Britain only.
Americans were exploited by Britain using these acts and taxes. Hence, there was a growing anger among the Americans against Britain.
Deportation of convicts to America: Britain used to deport criminals to America. Americans were not happy with this deportation.
Britain wanted America to pay for the war expenses against France and to pay for the British troops residing in America. It was not acceptable to common Americans.
The legacy of American revolution can be summarised in below points:
America got independence and the making of American Federation: America got independence from the imperial rule of Britain and it showed the world, how small colonies can come together, solve issues, compromise and create a great federation.
Domino Effect: American revolution inspired many revolutions against the monarchy and it showed the world that if the masses are united, then they can definitely win against the imperialist forces. After American revolution, France in 1789, Ireland in 1798, Latin American Nations in 1830s revolted against their rulers in order to become republic.
Effect to France: France sent their army to help American revolutionaries. It impacted heavily on the economy of French kingdom. This will eventually lead to revolution by French people.
Lessons Learnt for Britain: Britain understood that they will need to give representation to their colonies to avoid similar revolts. Britain passed Pitts India Act in 1784 and later on initiated several administrative reforms.
First Written Republic Constitution: American federation prepared first republic constitution. There were disputes among big and small states but Americans succeeded in making a constitution accommodating all the different view points.
American revolution spread the feeling of nationalism in entire world and showed that imperialistic forces can be defeated too.
(Note: This answer has been selected as the second part of the answer has been answered exceptionally well.)
4. Do you think banning the age old tradition of Jallikattu is interference in religious matters of a particular community and hence violative of the Constitution? Critically examine.
Provide brief introduction about Jallikattu and its tradition
Provide both the views:
How banning Jallikattu is interference in religious matters of a particular community, violating –
Article 25: Freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion
Article 26: Freedom to manage religious affairs
How banning Jallikattu is not violative of the Constitution—
The sport amounts to cruelty to animals, which includes bovines specifically bred for participating in the sport.
In Jallikattu, bulls are forced to participate against their will as slaves were treated in 16th century. Bulls are subjected to rough treatment and used for entertainment.
How this uncivilized event violates –
Constitutional duty of treating animals with compassion, Article 51 A (g)
Article 21 (Right to Life), which prohibits any disturbance to the environment, including animals, considered essential for human life
Article 48A – The State shall endeavour to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard the forests and wild life of the country.
Provisions of the 50-year-old Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act.
[Optional – You can substantiate above points quoting the Animal Welfare Board of India (AWBI) report. Studies indicate that rough and abusive handling of bulls compromise welfare and for increasing fear in bulls, often, they are pushed, hit, prodded, abused, causing mental as well as physical harm.]
One needs to explain the unique nature of Indian secularism – Indian secularism does protect the religious freedom of individuals by maintaining a separation from religion. But it also provides room for the reform of religions, for example, the abolishing of sati, untouchability, child marriage, etc. Therefore, in its attempt to achieve religious equality (both between as well as within religions) the Indian secular State both maintains a separation as well as intervenes in religion. This intervention can either be in terms of a ban (like that on Untouchability) or in terms of providing assistance to religious minorities and hence should not be seen as violative of Constitution.
The Supreme Court has elevated rights of animals to that of constitutional rights of citizens, as done by many of the countries around the world, so as to protect their dignity and honour.
Allowing jallikattu to remain a sport because it represents Tamil tradition would legitimise cruelty against animals and have serious implications for the right to life. However, Yeru Thazhuvu, in Tamil tradition, is to embrace bulls and not overpowering the bull to show human bravery.
The court by banning the use of bulls as performing animals, has reiterated that any custom, even if in existence since the pre-constitutional days, should be in consonance with the values of the Constitution.
Nevertheless, ban is not a solution to end such cultural practices but awareness among people regarding apathy towards animals has to be raised as the greatness of a nation can be judged by the way its animals are treated.
Best answer: ashish_cse2016
Jaliikattu is a bull taming practice observed in the state of Tamilnadu. In 2014 SC banned jallikattu on the ground of cruelty inflicted on animals. After which there are series of arguments made in favour and against the decision. Supporters of the jallikattu says it is violative of constituion.
Following points can be observed in their arguments
1) It is associated with religious festival. Hence ban is violative of article 25 I.e right to freedom of religion.
2) Secularism, preambular value , is the basic structure of constitution , and interference by state signifies breach of value.
3)evidences in sangam literature reveals , it is practiced with religious celebration since time immemorial . Thus it is violative of ‘essential religious doctrine ‘ pronounced by Hon. Supreme court.
4) Rearing of specific breeds for jallikattu forms source of livelihood for farmers , thus violates their right to life.
However ban pronounced by sc is based on rational grounds. And followin arguments suggest it is not violative of constitution.
1) Expanded scope of right to life includes not just life of human but also that of animals
2) it is violative of prevention of cruelty to animals act 1960
3) Article 51(A) g ,expects from citizens compassion towards living creatures.
.4) animals are intoxicated. There is no valour attacking single animal by group of 10 to 15 people.
5) religious freedom is not absolute right and subjected to restrictions. So cruelty can be one basis.
On the basis above arguments we can say that Ban is not violative of constituional principles rather it gives wider meaning to them , broaden their scope. Moreover social evils like sati, child marriage also formed the part of religious traditions but we abandoned it over the period of time, Jaliikattu can be seen as a part of continuance of such reforms. We know that evils can’t be regulated, it must be eliminated. So SC step is a brave one in that direction to eradicate further ills ailing our social system under the guise of religion.
5. The China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is China’s Marshall plan. Do you agree? Substantiate.
In order to answer this question, one should be aware of what Marshall plan is and its background.
In introduction, provide in few lines what is Marshall plan (of US).
In next paragraph provide comparisons – similarities and contradictory views – between US’s Marshall plan and CPEC.
Under similar points, you can provide how hidden strategic goals of OBOR and CPEC are similar to those strategic aims of the Marshall Plan. (Refer to the best answer provided below)
Under contradictory points, you can provide –
The primary objective of CPEC is economic benefit while Marshall plan was an aid to support European countries to rebuild themselves after WW2.
Marshall plan had a wider perspective to modernize industry, remove trade barriers and resist growth of communism. CPEC is revolved only around the strategic location of Pakistan and China’s economic interests to access West Asia and Middle East. That is the project is not a comprehensive project for development of Pakistan though it is upheld to benefit Pakistan due to increased connectivity and trade.
Provide your view in conclusion. Support your stand by providing some evidences.
Undoubtedly, (from the above points) we can conclude that the CPEC does not emphasize ideological factors as heavily as the Marshall Plan did. On the contrary, economic and financial considerations have been major concerns for China’s initiative. Moreover, the Marshall plan was based on cooperation and coordination between Western Europe and US, whereas the CPEC is more of a Chinese effort to make its OBOR possible by using Pakistan. Therefore we can conclude that Chinese CPEC is not China’s Marshall plan.
Best answer: Saurabh
The China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is an ambitious project initiated by China at an estimated cost of $54 billion. It is considered as an extension of its much touted One Belt, One Road project and runs from Kashgar in China to Gwadar in Pakistan
Experts have compared it to the Marshall plan which involved giving lines of credit and other economic assistance by the US to war ravaged Western European countries in order to stave off Soviet influence. Some similarities are apparent:
1) The Marshall plan created captive markets in the Western European countries and the same is envisaged by China in Pakistan in order to do away with their export glut
2) Due to Marshall plan aid, there was massive militarization of Western European countries. With massive Chinese investment in the CPEC, Pakistan could gain military strength
3) US also guaranteed the security of these European countries and CPEC also aims to guarantee the security of its corridor which runs from Kashgar to Gwadar
4) It can possibly be the harbinger of an alliance of China and Pakistan with Afghanistan and Iran in order to isolate India from the region, something which was achieved by US in West Europe for the Soviet Russia
5) Authoritarian regimes in Central Asia can invite strategic linkages with China if this project shows financial viability
However, there are contrarian views too:
1) China has not expressed any intent to make strategic forays into this region via the CPEC
2) This project could possibly stabilize Pakistan which would be beneficial to Indian interests
Certainly there are wide possibilities of the CPEC having vast strategic overtones just as the Marshall plan had, but all this sounds too far fetched in a multipolar world with powers like US and India having their say in this region. However, India must cooperate with the Chinese OBOR wherever she benefits from it and at the same time must keep a close watch on the CPEC in particular.