SYNOPSIS: IASbaba’s TLP – 2018: UPSC Mains General Studies Questions [13th February 2018]- Day 57
1. What is bioremediation? How does it work? How can it address pollution? Discuss.
- Introduction: Define bioremediation in Introduction.
- Body: In body, mention how they work and 2nd part how they address pollution. Diagram or flow chart can be added for 1st
- Conclusion: 2-3 line conclusion.
Bioremediation is a waste management process of treating pollution through use of naturally occurring or artificially introducing certain microorganisms to consume and break down the pollutants.
- Microorganisms are introduced in the area which has to be treated.
- The process can be either aerobic or anaerobic.
- These microorganisms feed on the pollutants, break them down and give out less toxic by converting them into water and other gases.
- The process is repeated until desired results are achieved.
How it can address pollution:
- Land farming.
- Bio augmentation.
- Bio stimulation.
Note: Explanation is needed for all points. Important points that are required in body are given. 8-10 points are enough.
Bioremediation can be a boon for addressing environmental pollution problem and help in sustainable development. But this technique has its limitation; it can be used only on bio-degradable pollutants and not on heavy metals and radioactive substances. Scientists need to come up with solution for them too at the earliest.
Connecting the dots:
Best Answer: Deadpool.
Q2. Discuss the principles of environmental impact assessment (EIA)? Also examine the need of EIA to address the ‘development versus conservation’ dilemma.
- It is a two part question
- First discuss the concept of Environment Impact Assessment (EIA)
- Then describe the need / benefit of EIA
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a tool that links the environment with developmental activities. It is an assessment of the impact of social development on environmental health. It is a participatory tool for informed decision making. It ensures that the development of a project is environmentally sound and sustainable. The Ministry of Environment and Forest under the Environmental Protection Act of 1986, initiated the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) in 1994. It was reengineered in 2006. The core values of EIA:
- Integrity: it ensures that the project is in agreement with standard and good principles.
- Utility: a balanced approach and a credible information for decision making process
- Sustainability: an environmentally sound development with a regenerative capacity of the resources.
Steps Involved in the EIA Process:
- Screening: it takes into account whether a project requires environmental clearance as per the statutory requirements or not.
- Scoping: it is the preliminary assessment. It scans the Ministry’s guidelines to see which significant issues are to be addressed in the EIA study.
- Baseline Data: it monitors the existing data and the environmental status of the area under study. It learns it and supplements it with secondary data.
- Impact prediction: it is the most important analysis. It involves assessment of impacts of projects.
- Mitigation measures and EIA report: it involves the possible alternatives and comparison of the environmental attributes.
- Public Hearing Law: the public has to be informed and consulted on any development after the completion of EIA report through local associations, environmental groups, etc.
- Decision Making: it involves the consultation between the project proponent and the impact assessment authority.
- Monitoring as per the clearance conditions: it has to be done during both construction and operation phases of the project.
- Risk assessment: it mainly involves the hazard identifications including any probability of natural hazards.
Need For Environmental Impact Assessment
- It provides a cost effective method to eliminate or minimize the adverse impact of developmental projects.
- It enables the decision makers to analyses the effect of developmental activities on the environment well before the developmental project is implemented.
- It encourages the adaptation of mitigation strategies in the developmental plan.
- It makes sure that the developmental plan is environmentally sound and within limits of the capacity of assimilation and regeneration of the ecosystem.
- Lastly, it links environment with development. The goal is to ensure environmentally safe and sustainable development.
Best Answer: None
Q.3) The Indo-Gangetic plains witness devastating floods each year while on the other hand peninsular states suffer from severe droughts. Can interlinking of rivers address this problem? Critically examine.
The idea of interlinking of rivers in the Indian subcontinent is at least 150 years old. During the British Raj in India, Sir Arthur Cotton, a British general and irrigation engineer, first suggested linking the Ganga and the Cauvery for navigational purposes.
Why there is a need for inter-linking of rivers:
India is a land of monsoons of which the South-West Monsoon is a wet monsoon while the North-East Monsoon is a dry one. Yet the rainfall produced by them is not uniformly distributed either in space or in time which therefore leads to the occurrence of floods and droughts in different parts of the country from time to time. While floods are confined to restricted areas based on the distribution of the major river systems, droughts are only on account of rainfall failures following late onset or early withdrawal or both of the monsoons.
How interlinking of rivers can solve the problem:
- India receives maximum of its rain during monsoon season from June to September, most of it falls in northern and eastern part of India, the amount of rainfall in southern and western part are comparatively low. It will be these places which will have shortage of water. Interlinking of rivers will help these areas to have water throughout the year.
- Interlinking of rivers will also have commercial importance on a longer run. This can be used as inland waterways and which helps in faster movement of goods from one place to other.
- Interlinking creates a new occupation for people living in and around these canals and it can be the main areas of fishing in India.
- It will reduce the poverty and floods & distribute water equally.
Issues with interlinking of rivers:
- Interlinking of rivers will cause enormous amount of alteration in the existing environment. In order to create canals and reservoirs, there will be mass deforestation. This will have impact on rains and in turn affect the whole cycle of life.
- Usually rivers change their course and direction in about 100 years and if this happens after interlinking, then the project will not be feasible for a longer run.
- Due to interlinking of rivers, there will be decrease in the amount of fresh water entering seas and this will cause a serious threat to the marine life system and will be a major ecological disaster.
The River Linking project is a great challenge and an opportunity to address the water issues arising out of climate change. The long-term solution to water scarcity lies in making the River Linking project work by building a network of dams and canals across the length and breadth of the country. However, interlinking has to take place after a detailed study so that it does not cause any problem to the environment and society.
Best Answer: Acharya
4. With increasing policy impetus on manufacturing industries, it is imperative to create awareness about industrial disasters and also the necessary institutional mechanism to tackle such disasters. Comment.
- Why is it imperative to create awareness and have institutional mechanism?
- What needs to be done?
In recent times, with policies like Make In India, increased FDI in various sectors, Defence procurement policy etc the governemnt is trying to provide enough impetus to the manufacturing sector.
Growth in manufacturing sector would lead to employment generation, exports and greater contribution to the national GDP.
However, there is a need to ensure greater awareness about industrial disasters and the institutional mechanism to tackle them.
Why is it imperative to create awareness and have institutional mechanism?
- Disasters in past- Bhopal gas tragedy, 1984, Jharkhand mining case etc. This shows how vulnerable Indian industries are.
- Lack of compliance with industrial standards putting the labor at risk.
- Industrial clusters in India are dominated by SME’s that operate with limited capital and compliance to industrial standards is inconsistent.
- Existing laws like Factories Act, EPA, etc continue to incomplete in coverage and are implemented poorly.
- Any industrial disaster in future would not only affect ease of doing business but would also lead to loss of lives, damage to environment, economic loss etc.
What needs to be done?
- Comprehensive law dealing with all forms of Industrial disasters with fixed liability and compensation measures. Robust and up-to-date disaster management plan.
- Incentivizing formalisation of MSME’s and ensuring adherence to Industrial standards related to quality compliance and Standard Operating Procedure.
- Having an institutional mechanism for inspection in industries at regular intervals.
- Creating awareness among the labor through disaster specific training,mock-drills etc.
There is immense scope for India to emerge as the next global manufacturing hub. Making our industries less vulnerable toward disasters is crucial to ensure that the objective of Make In India mission is not defeated.
Best answer: Jayanthiii
5. What makes coastal India more susceptible to tropical cyclones? Discuss. Also examine the strategies to mitigate tropical cyclones.
- Introduction: Give a small intro about cyclones.
- Body: In body, explain geographic phenomena of cyclone formation and then give strategies to mitigate their effects.
- Conclusion: 2-3 line conclusion.
Cyclones are natural phenomena which are large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure. They are usually absent at equator. India is known to be one of the few countries to be adversely affected by cyclone frequently.
Reason for coastal India to be susceptible:
- India has two water bodies on both sides they are Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal.
- Bay of Bengal is more susceptible compared to Arabian Sea due to various factors like:
- High temperature difference between land and sea.
- Coriolis force.
- Topographic of eastern region: absence of mountains to block.
- Remnants of Pacific Ocean hurricane.
- Air circulation and trade winds from north east.
- Heat Island: Coastal regions are heavily industrialized.
Strategies to mitigate:
- Green cover.
- Cyclone buoys.
- Cyclone shelter.
- Coastal shelter belts.
- Coastal resistant infrastructures.
- Climate change.
- Sendai framework.
Note: Explanation is needed for all points. 8-10 points in total are enough.
Natural phenomena’s cannot be stopped they are bound to happen. But due to climate change, the occurrence of these phenomena’s has increased along with damages they cause to areas they pass by. Preventive measures should be taken but more importantly global warming should be addressed.
Connecting the dots:
- North east trade winds.
- Tibet influence on Indian climate.
Best Answer: Maximus