Day 53 – Q 3. How are sustainable technologies shaping the economies of different countries? Discuss. What is the level of maturity of this industry in India? Examine. 

  • IASbaba
  • August 10, 2020
  • 0
GS 1, TLP-UPSC Mains Answer Writing, World Geography
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3. How are sustainable technologies shaping the economies of different countries? Discuss. What is the level of maturity of this industry in India? Examine. 

विभिन्न देशों की अर्थव्यवस्थाओं को सतत प्रौद्योगिकियां कैसे प्रभावित कर रही हैं? चर्चा करें। भारत में इस उद्योग की परिपक्वता का स्तर क्या है? जांच करें।

Demand of the question:

It expects students to write about the sustainable technologies role in shaping economies of different countries. It also expects to probe deeper in to facts of the level of maturity of this industry in India.


People and their well-being are often the central focus of many scientific and technological endeavours. Sustainable Technology is a technology which improves our social and environmental footprint at every stage of the product life, from raw material extraction to end of life.


Attesting to this, Sustainable technologies are generating breakthroughs in the field of medicine, electricity, solar power, space exploration, governance, education, construction etc. Sustainable technologies are shaping the economies of different countries in following ways:

  • It ensures efficient natural resource consumption.
  • The shift from fossil fuel toward perpetual energy takes place, hence, its relative negative impacts such as pollution like problems are minimized.
  • Climate change risk mitigation: Being sustainably conscious, Patagonia has implemented a number of innovations in company management, such as recycled construction materials with laminated coated windows that prevent overheating, LED lighting, new systems of heating, ventilation and air conditioning controlled by a smart grid.
  • Supply chain improvement: Walmart, one of the biggest retail corporations in USA represents multiple deployments of digital transformations that work to eliminate wastage and energy usage and to provide supply chain control.
  • Patagonia is a sustainable clothing company with $800 million revenue that can boast with using organic materials, selling worn and re-crafted outfits and organic provision. Also, the company provides worldwide fundraising through online banking and keeps an online blog The Cleanest Line where articles are dedicated to environmental crises and solutions.
  • Digital innovations with help of renewable energy: The implementation of ambiguous digital transformations, like IoT and AL software, can help to control environmental conditions within the city. For example, saving water, especially in limited desert surroundings, becomes accessible due to smart sensors for water management and rainwater collection.
  • Offshore wind turbines equipped with sensors that seamlessly generate valuable data used  to build “an entirely green connection” with a 100 % carbon-free energy supplement by 2025. e.g. As done in Denmark by Microsoft and Orsted.

In these versatile ways sustainable technologies are shaping the economies of the world. These technologies are not just shaping the economies but they are transforming these economies into a different era of technological evolution.

Level of maturity of Sustainable technology industry in India:

  • From the point of view of government initiatives, Centre for Sustainable Technologies (CST) established as Centre for ASTRA (Application of Science and Technology for Rural Areas) in 1974, is IISc inter-disciplinary research and technology development centre for providing sustainable solutions to host of global concerns.
  • CST’s diverse interventions are, Energy Efficient Wood Burning Devices, Biomethanation, Biomass Gasification, Alternative Building Technologies, Green Buildings and BiPV, Water Purification and Defluoridation, Sanitation, Sustainable Biomass for Energy, Forestry, Bioenergy & Climate Change, and Environmental Quality Assurance-Impact Studies.
  • The spread and impact of technologies emanating from CST over the past three decades have been noteworthy; 1.5 million rural households are using the ASTRA wood burning devices for their cooking needs, adoption of biomass gasifiers for village electrification and industries is resulting in a daily savings of about 30 tons of fossil fuel.
  • Thirty-five biomethanation plants are converting bio-waste into useful biogas and about 12,000 buildings (including 5000 in earthquake affected regions of Gujarat) have been built using alternate building materials developed.
  • In agriculture sector, we identify some of the more promising technologies are developed that have the potential to transform agriculture, especially on small holding farms in India, to a low carbon and climate resilient path while maintaining or increasing yields.
  • In grid connectivity, The major objective of ‘Smart grid mission for India’ is to empower the Indian power sector in deploying smart grid sustainable technologies in an efficient, cost effective, innovative and scalable manner by bringing together all enabling technologies and all key stakeholders together under one roof. 
  • The Government of India has set a target of installing 175 GW of renewable energy capacity by the year 2022, which includes 100 GW from solar, 60 GW from wind, 10 GW from bio-power and 5 GW from small hydro-power.  Also International Solar Alliance as proposed by India is in place on global forum.
  • India’s renewable power installed capacity has reached over 70 GW. Here the sustainable technologies have  achieved a considerable target but still miles to go to achieve the set target.

The challenges of sustainable technological development is different in different settings, considering Indian scenario India has initiated and achieved noteworthy heights in sustainable technological development. However, following approaches needs to be adopted to attain heights of excellence.

  • Investing more in research and development in the sustainable technological development sector.
  • Giving impetus to new ideas and imbibing a culture of scientific approach in students through missions such as Atal innovation mission.
  • Supporting the start-ups in the sustainable technological sector by providing them tax concessions, less interest loans and providing platform for the market exposure such as green technological expo.


Sustainable technology is a newly emerging field in the world economy. As the fossil fuels are limited in nature, emerging sustainable technologies are going be the game changer in the market. Hence, more emphasis on developing these technologies can ensure India to achieve great heights in sustainable technological development just like ISRO’s golden achievements in past years.


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