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SYNOPSIS [3rd August,2021] Day 147: IASbaba’s TLP (Phase 1): UPSC Mains Answer Writing (General Studies)
1. Unifications of Germany and Italy are two parallel lines in the history of nationalism in Europe. Elaborate
Introduce with brief information on unification of Germany and Italy.In next part try to mention similar conditions of both the countries which led to a parallel process of unification.In conclusion write how it influenced other nations.
The unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871 when Bismarck brought all territory under Prussian control and crowning Wilhelm I Kaiser of Germany. In 1861, Italy was declared a united nation state by Camillo di Cavour. A nation state represents the nation to the rest of the world, and is bonded together by nationalism, language and culture. Both these events were occurring parallel to each other.
Factors which led to unification of Germany and Italy
- Geographical Factors
- Natural Resources such as coal and Iron was widely available in German areas, to take benefit of these resources along with Industrialisation, a Unified Germany was required.
- Geographic unity of Italian peninsula was natural factor that played role in unification of the country.
- Renaissance and role of thinkers/Philosophers
- Most of the initial thinkers and philosophers were from Italy and Germany. Therefore, awakening of the mass was inevitable.
- J. G. Fichte gave the concept of German idealism, glorifying German people, language and culture. Similarly, Friedrich Nietzsche gave the slogan of “Live dangerously”.
- Trade and economy
- The progress of German unification was greatly encouraged by the creation of Zollverein, a customs union in Central Germany, where internal trade tariffs were abolished, and a common trade policy with external states was developed. Similar efforts were taken in Italy also.
- Uprisings due Exploitation
- Earlier, Germany never had German rulers. Pop was the deciding authority for the affairs of German states.
- Similarly, after the defeat of Napoleon, Italy was exploited by France under the shield of Treaty of Campo Formio.
- Wars and policies of the Napoleon
- Napoleon abolished the smaller states in the area and established state of Westphalia in Germany. He took similar steps in Italy too.
- Strong leadership
- “Blood and Iron policy” of Bismarck played an important role in unification of Germany. Similarly, Italy got the great leaders in the form of Mazzini, Garibaldi and Cavour.
- Mazzini formed a nationalist group known as “Young Italy” and called for an end to foreign rule and unification of Italy.
- Social and Political Factors
- Common language and common culture played their role in unification of both the countries.
- Rise of new ideas and a strong wave of nationalism made the unification of both the countries possible.
Like for every reforms or revolution there will be certain hurdles, in there both cases it was Austria and France. So both fought them to attain unification and become independent nations of European continent.This event in history created ripples throughout the Europe and thus nationalism became the new way of organising states.Many in India were inspired by the acts of Mazzini and Garibaldi which energised the national movement of India.
2. How significant were the changes the Industrial Revolution brought to the world in economic, social, and political terms? Describe.
Define industrial revolution in introduction and mention the period of context.In next part write what economic, social and political changes did industrial revolution bring.In conclusion try to balance both the positive and negative effects of industrial revolution.
Industrial Revolution, in modern history, the process of change from an agrarian and handicraft economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing. These technological changes introduced novel ways of working and living and fundamentally transformed society. This process began in Britain in the 18th century and from there spread to other parts of the world.
Changes brought by Industrial revolution
In the social sphere also the industrial revolution produced far reaching consequences.
- In the first place, the growth of factory system resulted in the growth of new cities. Workers shifted to places near the factories where they were employed.This resulted in the growth of a number of new cities like Leeds, Manchester, Burmingham and Sheffield in Britain, which soon became the centres of industry, trade and commerce.similar rise in cities was seen world over such as rise Bombay, Kolkata etc.
- Secondly, the rise of cities was accompanied by the growth of slums. Before the advent of industrial revolution, the industry was scattered throughout the country. Artisans generally worked in their cottages or shops and were not entirely dependent on trade for their livelihood. They often combined manufacturing and agriculture.This was not possible after the growth of factories and the workers had to live at places near the factory. In the dark, dingy and dirty houses the workers fell easy prey to various types of diseases and often died premature deaths.
- Thirdly, the extremely low wages paid by the factory owners made it difficult for them to make both ends meet. As a consequence they were often obliged to send their women and children to factories, where they worked on extremely low wages.The industrialists preferred women and children also because they were easy to manage. This exploitation of women and children resulted in “stunned bodies, deformed backs, horribly twisted legs, sunken chests and savage natures.”
- Fourthly, the conditions of factory life were not conducive to healthy family life. The women were required to work in factories and mines for long hours and were hardly left with any time or energy to look after their household or children.Further, as they lived in extremely congested quarters they also lost their qualities of modesty and virtue. Often women and children began to drink like men. This wrecked their health and made their life miserable.
- Fifthly, industrial revolution led to sharp divisions in society. The society got divided into two classes-the bourgeois and the proletariat. The former consisted of factory owners, great bankers, small industrialists, merchants and professional men. They amassed great wealth and paid very low wages to the workers.
In the political sphere also the industrial revolution had manifold impact.
- In the first place it led to colonization of Asia and Africa. Great Britain and other industrial countries of Europe began to look for new colonies which could supply them the necessary raw materials for feeding their industries and also serve as ready market for their finished industrial products. Therefore, the industrial countries carved out extensive colonial empires in the nineteenth century.
- Secondly, industrial revolution sharply divided the countries. The industrially advanced countries which possessed necessary finances and technical know-how, invested their surplus capital in the backward countries and fully exploited their resources and crippled their industries. Thus the world came to be divided into two groups-the developed and the underdeveloped world, which is a cause of great tension even at present.
- Thirdly, as a result of the Industrial Revolution a large number of Europeans went across the oceans and settled down in America and Australia and contributed to the Europeanisation of these countries. It has been estimated that as against 145,000 people which left Europe in 1820’s, over 9 million people left Europe between 1900 and 1910.
- Fourthly, the Industrial Revolution provided a fillip to the reform movement in England. A number of Factory Laws were enacted to improve the lot of the workers between 1833-45 which tried to limit the working hours for children under eleven-years of age to 9 hours a day and that of women to 12 hours a day. These Acts also prohibited employment of children in mines and laid down general rules for the health and safety of workers.
- Fifthly, the industrial revolution led to a strong trade union movement.The working men in various trades and industries formed trade union to protect themselves against their employers. Though initially the English law forbade these unions but ultimately they were accorded recognition by law in 1824. However, the trade unions could not prove effective as they were divided and lacked national unity.
- Finally, industrial revolution paved the way for the development of new social and economic doctrines.While philosophers like Malthus, Ricardo and James Mill defended capitalist system and wanted the state to abstain from interfering in the economic and social sphere, on the other hand philosophers like Robert Owen, Karl Marx, William Godwin, Proudhon etc. advocated creed of socialism and insisted that the whole society ought to strive for the improvement of the moral and physical standards of the people.
- Development of Banking and Finance System: the middle class began opening up new factories for which they required financing and therefore, the banking and finance system began developing.
- Capitalism developed as an distinct ideology and business practice where profit was earned to invest more.
- It led to rise of exports and trade all over the world.As the articles were produced in surplus it required the markets.
- It reduced the labour burden on agriculture and shifted it to manufacturing sector.
- It improved the economic well being and standard of living in the long run.
The Industrial Revolution was a revolutionary experience.Initially it led to many socioeconomic problems but it also increased material wealth, extended life, and was a powerful force for social change. And therefore, there was more to the Industrial Revolution than a bunch of machines, it was not only a technological revolution but a social-economic revolution that changed the way people lived afterwards.
3. Which factors were responsible to cause the nations of Europe to engage in imperialist activities? What were their implications? Discuss.
Define what is imperialism in introduction.In next part mention the causes for the rise of imperialism in Europe.In next part write what were the implications of these imperialistic activities.In conclusion take a stand on the effects of imperialism.
Imperialism is a policy or ideology of extending the rule over peoples and other countries,for extending political and economic access, power and control, often through employing hard power, especially military force, but also soft power. While related to the concepts of colonialism and empire, imperialism is a distinct concept that can apply to other forms of expansion and many forms of government.Europeans were the masters in imperialistic activities.
The following are the causes for the rise of Imperialism.
- Industrial revolution :Industrial revolution in European countries resulted in a great increase in production. They could not find market in Europe as they followed “Protective Trade Policy”. The purchasing power of the people was also low due to capitalism. It also introduced a great progress in the means of transport and communication. The telegraph system linked the whole world and reduced great distances. The development or railways speeded up the movement of goods between colonies and the mother country so it was easier to bring raw materials and to take the finished goods to the markets in the interior parts of the colonies in Asia and Africa.
- National security :The sense of National Security and self sufficiency among the European political groups instigated colonial imperialism. The Presidents or Prime Ministers worked towards colonial imperialism owing to the influence of business or some other interest.
- Nationalism :The later part of the 19th Century saw extreme nationalistic ideals in Europe. Many nations developed pride over their race, culture and language and started feeling superior to other countries. They felt that acquisition of colonies would enhance the prestige of their nations. Imperialism became the fashion of the age. The Europeans felt that it was ‘white man’s burden’ to civilise the backward and uncivilised native people of African and Asia.
- Balance of Power :The concept of Balance of power was one of the driving factors. European Nations were forced to acquire new colonies to achieve a balance with their neighbours and competitors.
- Discovery of new routes :The discovery of new routes of African and Asian continents promoted the spirit of imperialism. The discovery of sea routes paved the way for the traders and soldiers to exploit the abundant wealth of the countries.
- Growth of population :The population growth which resulted in unemployment and forced the Europeans to emigrate in search of new lands and careers abroad.
- State of Anarchy :There was no international organisation to enact and enforce laws for nations to maintain peace and security among countries before the First World War. This state of anarchy supported the colonial race.
Implications of imperialism on the world:
- Development of modern economy- Laying of railroad networks, road networks, telephone and telegraph lines, dams, bridges, and irrigation canals enabled colonies to modernise.
- Increased life spans and literacy- Humanitarian efforts in some colonies improved sanitation and brought hospitals and schools.
- Economic expansion- African products came to be valued on the international market.
- Reduced local warfare- British troops cleared central India of bandits and put an end to local warfare among competing local rulers.
- Decline of locally owned industries- British held much of the political and economic power. British restricted locally-owned industries such as cotton textiles.
- Loss of self-sufficiency- Emphasis on cash crops resulted in a loss of self-sufficiency for many villagers.
- Famines- Conversion to cash crops reduced food production, causing famines in the late 1800s.
- Disruption in traditional life- The increased presence of missionaries and the outspoken racist attitude of most British officials threatened Indian traditional life.
- Colonial wars- Various Europeans would fight among themselves over ruling the colonies.
- Division of African continent- The artificial boundaries that combined or unnaturally divided groups created problems that plagued African colonies during European occupation. These boundaries continue to create problems for the nations that evolved from the former colonies.
Imperialism destroyed the colonies and pushed them their economic, social and political systems to ruins. The growth of masters was at the cost of colonies as they exploited and drained colonies to the core.Imperialism badly affected India which was corroborated by the poor conditions of Indian population on the eve of Independence.