Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya’s Jayanti
Part of: Prelims and GS-I: Modern Indian History and important personalities
- An Indian educationist and politician notable for his role in the Indian Independence movement
- Became president of the Indian National Congress four times.
- He was respectfully addressed by the title Pandit and also addressed as ‘Mahamana’.
- His multifaceted personality made him, at the same time, a great patriot, an educationist with a vision, a social reformer, an ardent journalist, reluctant but effective lawyer, a successful parliamentarian and an outstanding statesman.
- One of the founders of Scouting in India
- Remembered for his role in ending the Indian indenture system, especially in the Caribbean.
- He also founded a highly influential, English-newspaper, The Leader published from Allahabad in 1909
- Pandit ji was posthumously conferred with Bharat Ratna, India’s highest civilian award, on 24 December 2014, a day before his 153rd Birth Anniversary
Establishment of Banaras Hindu University
- Among Malaviyaji’s many achievements, the most monumental was the establishment of the Banaras Hindu University or Kashi Hindu Vishvavidyalaya. In the course of his lifetime Banaras Hindu University came to be known as a Capital of Knowledge, acknowledged across India and the World.
- The Nizam of Hyderabad was renowned to be tight-fisted. Getting him to make a donation was perceived next to impossible. Armed with a steely determination, Malaviya managed to extract such a large donation from the Nizam that even today there is a Nizam Hyderabad Colony in Banaras Hindu University (BHU) where dozens of teachers and their families reside.
Indian Independence Movement
- Mahatma Gandhi considered him to be his conscience-keeper and called him his elder brother on public platforms. Still, Malaviya didn’t hesitate in disagreeing with the Mahatma when it came to principles.
- During the Quit India Movement of 1942, when Bapu asked students to boycott schools, Malaviya publicly expressed his displeasure.
- Boycotting educational institutes was something Malaviya considered antithetical to the nation’s interests. “If children don’t study, how can they prepare for running the country,” was Malaviya’s reasoning.
- He was one of the signatories of Poona pact. Had this not been signed, the British would have sowed some more seeds of conflict in the name of Dalits.
- Very few people are aware that 172 people were sentenced to be hung in the Chauri Chaura case. By then, Malaviya had left legal practice owing to politics and social work. Still, he fought the case on their behalf and managed to get 153 people acquitted.
- He popularized the term ‘Satyamev Jayate’. However, the phrase originally belongs to the Mundaka Upanishad. The term now is the national motto of India.
- Rabindranath Tagore honoured him with the encomium ‘Mahamana’ (a luminous mind and magnanimous heart).
- The second President of India, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan gave him the status of a ‘Karmayogi’.
- Devnagri was introduced in the British-Indian courts because of Malviya’s efforts with the British government.
- He helped establish the Hindu Mahasabha (“Great Society of Hindus”) in 1906, which brought diverse local Hindu nationalist movements together.
News Source: PIB