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Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj

  • IASbaba
  • February 22, 2022
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Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj

Part of: GS-1: Modern Indian History; Important personalities

In News: 

  • Born on 19th February, 1630 at Shivneri Fort in District Pune; born to Shahaji Bhonsle, a Maratha general who held the jagirs of Pune and Supe under the Bijapur Sultanate and Jijabai, a pious woman whose religious qualities had a profound influence on him.
  • 1645: Got control of the Torna Fort which was under Bijapur. Also, acquired the Kondana Fort. Both these forts were under Adil Shah of Bijapur.
  • Battle of Pratapgarh in 1659: Shivaji’s forces vanquished the Bijapur Sultanate’s army
  • Aurangzeb sent Raja jai Singh of Amber, who besieged Purander fort →  Treaty of Purander, 1665
    • Shivaji surrendered 23 / 35 forts to Mughals and said to be loyal to Mughal empire
    • It was agreed that Shivaji would meet Aurangzeb at Agra. Shivaji also agreed to send his son Sambhaji as well.
    • At Agra in 1666, when Shivaji went to meet the Mughal emperor, the Maratha warrior felt he was insulted by Aurangzeb and stormed out of the court. He was arrested and kept prisoner. The clever escape of Shivaji and his son from imprisonment in disguise out of Agra is a legendary tale even today.
  • In 1674, Shivaji recaptured all his lost territory & crowned himself at Raigarh assuming the title of Chhtrapati, Shakakarta, Kshatriya Kulavantas and Haindava Dharmodhhaarak.
  • 3 April 1680 at Raigad: Death
  • Shivaji: Considered a master of the guerrilla warfare
  • Kanhoji Angre, his admiral, is called the ‘Father of Indian Navy’.

Battles

  • Battle of Pratapgad, 1659: Fought at the fort of Pratapgad near the town of Satara, Maharashtra, between the forces of the Maratha king Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and the Adilshahi general Afzal Khan.
  • Battle of Pavan Khind, 1660: Fought at a mountain pass in the vicinity of fort Vishalgad, near the city of Kolhapur, Maharashtra, between the Maratha Sardar Baji Prabhu Deshpande and Siddi Masud of Adilshahi.
  • Sacking of Surat, 1664: Fought near the city of Surat, Gujarat, between Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and Inayat Khan, a Mughal captain.
  • Battle of Sinhagad, 1670: Fought on the fort of Sinhagad near the city of Pune, Maharashtra between Tanaji Malusare, a commander of Maratha ruler Shivaji Maharaj and Udaybhan Rathod, fortkeeper under Jai Singh I who was a Mughal Army Chief.
  • Battle of Kalyan, 1682-83: Bahadur Khan of the Mughal Empire defeated the Maratha army and took over Kalyan.
  • Battle of Sangamner, 1679: Fought between the Mughal Empire and Maratha Empire. This was the last battle in which the Maratha King Shivaji fought.

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