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SYNOPSIS [3rd February,2022] Day 4: IASbaba’s TLP (Phase 1): UPSC Mains Answer Writing (General Studies)
1. Do you think the Royal Navy mutiny has an underrated legacy in the historical context? Substantiate your views.
Candidates need to write about the RIN mutiny in introduction then highlight causes and why it has underrated in history. Then explain its significance and the legacy how it fastened the transfer of power.
On February 18, 1946, a section of non-commissioned officers and sailors known as Ratings, serving in the Royal Indian Navy, mutinied against the British Officers. The mutiny started as a strike by the ratings to protest against the hardships regarding pay, food and racial discrimination.
They suffered abuses by superior officers, arrest of a rating for scrawling ‘Quit India’ on HMIS Talwar, INA trials, use of Indian troops in Indonesia and the demand for their withdrawal were some of the reasons behind the RIN mutiny.
The commander of HMIS Talwar, F M King, reportedly addressed the naval ratings as “sons of coolies and bitches”, which inflamed the situation further.
Soon, ordinary people joined the ratings, and life came to a virtual standstill in both Bombay and Calcutta.
The strikers were inspired by the INA trials and the persona of Subhas Chandra Bose.
Why it was underrated:
The revolt, however, failed to see support from the Indian leadership who perhaps saw a mutiny, so close to independence, as a danger.
The leaders realized that any mass uprising would inevitably carry the risk of not being amenable to centralized direction and control.
476 sailors were discharged as a result of the mutiny. They were not taken into the Indian or Pakistani navies after independence.
Besides, now that independence and power were in sight, they were eager not to encourage indiscipline in the armed forces.
Legacy and significance:
It was immediately after this revolt that PM Atlee dispatched the Cabinet Mission to India, so it is also inferred that the mutiny hastened the process of transfer of power to India.
Mutinies are usually confined to a particular station, establishment or ship. However, this was the first instance when the entire service joined the revolt.
Most striking feature was that it was directed against the British government and not against superior officers – not a single officer, British or Indian, was harmed.
The RIN strike came at a time when the Indian nationalist sentiment had reached fever pitch across the country.
The RIN revolt remains a legend today. It was an event that strengthened further the determination among all sections of the Indian people to see the end of British rule. Deep solidarity and amity among religious groups was in evidence, which appeared to run counter to the rapidly spreading atmosphere of communal hatred and animosity.
2. How did developments during the interwar period on the international front affect the freedom struggle in India?
Candidates need to directly address how interwar period created a atmosphere at international stages. Then straightaway write about the impact of interwar period on Indian National struggle.
It has been criticised that the interwar period (1919 to 1939) was not a phase of reconstruction but that of global politics reshaping itself for a second war. International factors during interwar period and many other, no doubt helped to create the sort of atmosphere which affected the Indian freedom struggle.
Impact of interwar period on freedom struggle:
Inter-war years lead to the rise of 2nd leg of Indian National Movement, it prepared a firm and deep base in for Nationalistic activities in India, the culmination of various International influences, along with rising mass participation in India.
Appeasement was the policy followed by the British, avoiding war with aggressive powers such as Japan give opportunity to INA.
The situation really began to drift out of control with the onset of the economic crisis, or the Great Depression 1929.
Formation of USSR after the war also led to the rise of communism in India with the formation of CPI and imparted a socialist influence on the freedom struggle.
As a result of Russian Revolution of 1917, militants got inspired by socialism-which made people realize the ill effects of capitalism. It brought most ignored sections like peasants to the forefront later many peasants movement impacted imperialism.
Myth of the indestructible power of the British Empire in India as the British faced many humiliating defeats during the war. This raised the self-confidence among Indians.
Under international circumstances British government realized that the participation of the Indian National Congress was necessary in any discussion on the future of constitutional government in India.
Lack of Focus of British on its colonies- as they were on the back foot to defend themselves because of their reducing impact.
The Labour Party, which had come to power in Britain after the end of the World War, lifted the ban on the Congress and elections were declared in India which paved the way for the powerful Indian leaders to come back in the game.
The British, facing such grave problems back home, did not have the energy and resources to hold India and the enthusiastic Indians who were determined to achieve independence.
The American government pressurized Britain to grant India its due independence because the Allied Powers stood for freedom and democracy.
Thus, Interwar period had far reaching effects on India’s freedom movement- it lead to the strengthening of the foundation laid by the Moderates and acted as the link between initial efforts and final culmination to Independence.
3. What are the key observations of the latest economic survey on India’s growth
Candidates need to discuss the key observations of the latest economic survey on India’s growth performance.
The Economic Survey (2021-22) while pegging India’s growth at 8-8.5% for 2022-2023 and estimates a dip in financial debt to 46.2% of the budget, real growth of 2021-22 at 9.2% and growth in tax revenue, investments and surplus liquidity in the market.
The key observations of the latest economic survey on India’s growth performance includes:
The government sees the Indian economy growing at 8-8.5 per cent in the financial year 2022-23 (FY23).
The projection was comparable with World Bank and Asian Development Bank’s latest forecasts of real GDP growth of 8.7 per cent and 7.5 per cent respectively for 2022-23.
As per IMF’s latest World Economic Outlook projections, India’s real GDP is projected to grow at 9 per cent in 2021-22 and 2022-23 and at 7.1 per cent in 2023-2024, which would make India the fastest-growing major economy in the world for all 3years.
The GDP growth rate for the ongoing financial year 2021-22 (FY22) is estimated at 9.2 per cent.
In order to achieve USD 5 trillion GDP by FY’25, India needs to spend about USD 1.4 trillion over this period on infrastructure, according to the Economic Survey.
Agriculture and allied sectors are expected to grow by 3.9 per cent; industry by 11.8 per cent and the services sector by 8.2 per cent in 2021-22.
On-demand side, consumption is estimated to grow by 7.0 percent, Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) by 15 per cent, exports by 16.5 percent and imports by 29.4 percent in 2021-22.
Macroeconomic stability indicators suggest that the Indian Economy is well placed to take on the challenges of 2022-23.
Combination of high foreign exchange reserves sustained foreign direct investment, and rising export earnings will provide an adequate buffer against possible global liquidity tapering in 2022-23.
The year ahead poised for a pickup in private sector investment with the financial system in good position to provide support for economy’s revival.
Agriculture and allied sectors expected to grow by 3.9 per cent; industry by 11.8 per cent and services sector by 8.2 per cent in 2021-22.
On demand side, consumption estimated to grow by 7.0 per cent, Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) by 15 per cent, exports by 16.5 per cent and imports by 29.4 per cent in 2021-22.
Combination of high foreign exchange reserves, sustained foreign direct investment, and rising export earnings will provide adequate buffer against possible global liquidity tapering in 2022-23.
The economic impact of the “second wave” was much smaller than that during the full lockdown phase in 2020-21, though the health impact was more severe.
The revenue receipts from the Central Government (April to November 2021) have gone up by 67.2 per cent (YoY) as against the expected growth of 9.6 per cent in the 2021-22 Budget Estimates (over 2020-21 Provisional Actuals).
The last two years have been difficult for the world economy on account of the COVID-19 pandemic. Repeated waves of infection, supply-chain disruptions and, more recently, inflation have created particularly challenging times for policy-making. With the vaccination programme having covered the bulk of the population, economic momentum building back and the likely long-term benefits of supply-side reforms in the pipeline, the Indian economy is in a good position to witness GDP growth of 8.0-8.5 per cent in 2022-23.