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SYNOPSIS [25th March,2022] Day 54: IASbaba’s TLP (Phase 1): UPSC Mains Answer Writing (General Studies)
1. What do you understand by the philosophy of integral humanism? Explain with the help of suitable examples.
Candidates need to write about the philosophy of the integral humanism. And how it’s important in today’s society explain with the suitable examples.
Integral Humanism was given by Deen Dayal Upadhyaya. He proposed this concept in order to give independent India an ideological basis on which nation building into One India can be done.
- It means that the human being is at the core position of the social, political and economic model.
- According to Upadhyaya, four ingredients of an individual were the body, mind, intelligence and soul. All of them were integrated.
- These four corresponded to the four universal objectives of dharma (moral duties), artha (wealth), kama (desire or satisfaction), and moksha (total liberation or ‘salvation’).
- An integral understanding of life is, instead, holistic in nature. For example, a medical model of health may be restricted to its biological needs, while an integrated understanding of human life comprises of body, mind, intellect and soul.
- Integral Humanism proposes harmony between man, nature and spirit. For example Integral Ecology takes us back to the age-old wisdom of interdependence with nature. It is reflected in SDG Goal 13 on climate action.
- Integral humanism Encourages brotherhood and discourages enmity among people, nations and sub-national units. For example idea of oneness amongst people of all races, castes, creeds, geographies and gender is fundamental to the interpretation of integral frameworks in the international context.
- For example in democratic government, jan rajya must also be rooted in Dharma, i.e., a ‘Dharma Rajya’. In the definition of democracy of the people, by the people and for the people of as per integral humanism.
Thus, Integral Humanism revolves around the basic themes of harmony, primacy of cultural-national values and discipline. This doctrine of Pandit Upadhyay is quite relevant even in the present political and economic situation of India.
2. How does lack of healthy work culture affect organisational performance? Discuss with the help of suitable examples.
Students are expected to write about the work culture also how unhealthy work culture affect the organization performance. Explain with the example also give some examples of healthy work culture.
Components of work culture are its vision, values, practices, people and place. Organization is made of people and institution. Work culture reflects the quality of both.
Work culture affecting the organization performance:
- A gender bias, caste bias, religion bias in an organisation is also a sign of bad work culture. These kind of biases not only hamper the organisational efficiency but also promote the social divide.
- For instance, recent incidences in government schools where women belonging to backward sections of society were not allowed to cook food for students.
- Suppose work culture is bad, which shows partiality, favoritism, nepotism etc. as it was in earlier days for tender allocations at times, partiality in writing of ACRs sometimes it demotivates talented and hard-working people. Thereby it reduces organisational efficiency. For instance, recent Vyapam scam.
Creating good work culture:
- Good leadership team.
- Keeping organization’s objective above oneself.
- The foundation of an organization should be based on basic values like empathy, honesty and integrity.
- Spirt of cooperation as well as competition should be encouraged.
Impact of healthy work culture:
- Healthy work culture promotes transparency, innovation and discipline in an organisation. For instance, the kind of work culture followed through SAARTHI programme in Pune which facilitates better e-governance. It has increased the organisational efficiency of government.
- Good work culture promotes peer respect, recognition of hard work, and freedom to bring new ideas (innovation) it thereby increases the efficiency of organisation.
- For instance, Netflix doesn’t makes it mandatory for their employees to maintain basic etiquettes of dressing. They not even made it mandatory to come in office at time. Still Netflix has expanded its viewership in multi-fold ways.
Good work culture can shape the outcomes and the perception in the eyes of public and it attracts best available talent which in turn serves the organization better.
3. Explain the legal and institutional measures in place to ensure the effective utilisation of public funds in India. What are the key challenges in this regard? Discuss.
Candidates need to explain the legal and institutional measures in place to ensure the effective utilisation of public funds in India and then discuss the key challenges in this regard.
Properly managed accounting system helps ensure proper control over funds. Accounting policies and procedures are designed to compile accounts fulfilling legal/procedural requirements that govern financial control. Accounts are an essential part of financial management of activities. On the basis of accounts, the Government regulates the shape of its financial and fiscal policies. Efficient utilisation of public funds is necessary for judicious use of financial resources to satisfy the needs of the present society in such a way that it doesn’t compromise the capability of societies of future generations to meet their own needs.
The legal and institutional measures in place to ensure the effective utilisation of public funds in India
Properly managed accounting system helps ensure proper control over funds. Accounts are an essential part of financial management of activities. On the basis of accounts, the Government regulates the shape of its financial and fiscal policies. On the basis of accounts, the Government regulates the shape of its financial and fiscal policies.
- All the loans raised by the Government by issue of public notifications, treasury bills (internal debt) and loans obtained from foreign governments and international institutions (external debt) are credited into consolidated fund of India. All expenditure of the government is incurred from consolidated fund of India and no amount can be withdrawn from the Fund without authorization from the Parliament.
- The Contingency Fund of India records the transactions connected with Contingency Fund set by the Government of India under Article 267 of the Constitution of India. This fund acts more or less like an imprest account of Government of India and is held on behalf of President by the Secretary to the Government of India, Ministry of Finance, Department of Economic Affairs.
- In the Public Account constituted under Article 266 (2) of the Constitution, the transactions relate to debt other than those included in the Consolidated Fund of India. The receipts under Public Account do not constitute normal receipts of Government. Parliamentary authorization for payments from the Public Account is therefore not required.
- The CAG protects public funds from the reach of arbitrary power and, in that sense, is an important and most useful dignitary of the state.
- The Pension Fund Regulatory and Development Authority (PFRDA) is the sole regulator of the pension industry in India. Its major objectives are to provide income security to the old aged by regulating and developing pension funds and to protect the interest of subscribers to pension schemes.
The Key challenges in this regard
- Systemic feebleness, manifested as shortage of trained, regular staff for various important roles like programme management, finance/accounts and frontline service provision; this contributed to weaken the capacities of the government apparatus in the States for implementation of Plan schemes.
- Lack of sufficient staff in government offices
- Improper technological penetration at grassroot level or ineffective decentralization of financial power
- Corruption leading to diversion of funds to unauthorised sources.
- Poor accountability mechanism preventing their effective monitoring and utilization.
- Ineffective decentralization of power
- Populist politics in the country, Crony capitalism, favouritism and misuse of office, lack of coherence in planning, etc.
- Expenditure rush during the month of March, popularly known as ‘March Rush’, which leads to unplanned and improper fund expenditure, to prevent lapsing of funds that have remained unutilized.
- Diversion of funds to other purposes.
- The deficiencies in decentralized planning being carried out in the schemes, resulting due to insufficient staff for undertaking planning activities, inadequate attention to their capacity building and minimal role for community participation in the planning process.
Efficient utilisation of public funds requires a number of reforms for good governance such as decentralisation of power, plugging legislative loopholes, strengthening the public Institutions like CVC and RTI, enhancing administrative accountability and making society more democratic. These reforms could make society more sustainable in the long run.