2. How do you define terrorism? How is it related to organised crime? Has the linkage between organised crime and terrorism evolved in recent years? If yes, how? Discuss. (10 Marks)
आप आतंकवाद को कैसे परिभाषित करते हैं? यह संगठित अपराध से किस प्रकार संबंधित है? क्या हाल के वर्षों में संगठित अपराध और आतंकवाद के बीच संबंध विकसित हुआ है? यदि हाँ, तो कैसे? चर्चा करें।
Students are expected to give basic information of both organized crime and terrorism and explain how both are interlinked and related to each other in many cases. Also discuss whether this type of linkage are recent phenomenon or not.
Organised crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of highly centralised enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most commonly for money and profit. While terrorism is a Violent, criminal acts committed by individuals and/or groups who are inspired by, or associated with, designated foreign terrorist organisations or nations (state-sponsored).
Nexus between organised crime and terrorism
- Terrorist groups need arms and money to fight against security forces. The organised criminals and terrorist groups become clients of each other. Organised criminals groups smuggle arms, drugs, cattle, humans to generate money for terrorist groups.
- Terrorist groups always try to destabilise the country and bring down the morale of security forces. When the terrorist groups are unable to confront the security forces directly, they turn towards organised criminals. Thus organised criminals indirectly help these terrorist groups.
- Organised criminal groups generally establish a strong communication network. These organised groups act as eyes and ears of the terrorist groups.
- Terrorist organisations in India, especially in the northeast, mobilise funds by becoming couriers of illegal drugs and arms and at times even human beings from one point to another within the country.
- Terrorists are always in need of money. As they fail to mobilise large amounts of money, they take the help of organised criminals to exchange counterfeit currency with arms.
Penetration of Organised crime and its link with terrorism:
- Besides Kashmir and the northeast, sporadic incidents in other parts of India like the Bombay blasts, for instance, have exposed the connection between terrorism and organized crime.
- This is distinct from the traditional linkages flourishing between organized crime syndicates and local criminals.
There is a need to develop effective and tailor-made responses to the organised crime and terrorism, which address the underlying causes of the convergence at all levels, based on strong evidence, engagement with local actors, good governance, enhanced services delivery and capacity building and the incorporation of normative frameworks.