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DAILY CURRENT AFFAIRS IAS | UPSC Prelims and Mains Exam – 4th May 2022

  • IASbaba
  • May 4, 2022
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(PRELIMS & MAINS Focus)


Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Science and Technology – Defence
  • Mains – GS 3 (Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology; Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology)

Why in News: The indigenous Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System (ATAGS) successfully completed the validation trials towards meeting the specifications of the Army.

About Advanced Towed Artillery Gun System

  • ATAGS artillery gun is jointly developed by Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE), the Pune-based laboratory of DRDO, in partnership with Bharat Forge and Tata Group.
  • The ATAGS is a 155mm, 52-calibre heavy artillery gun
  • The ATAGS has demonstrated a range of over 45 km
  • It is most consistent and accurate gun in the world
  • It is capable of the shortest minimum range at high angle and fast mobility in desert and mountain terrain in addition to autonomous mode firing capability and wireless communication
  • It has been designed to fire all in-service ammunitions with a fully automatic ammunition handling system with all electronic drives

Previous Year Questions (PYQs)

Q.1) Which reference to Agni-IV Missile, which of the following statements is/are correct? (2014)

  1. It is a surface-to-surface missile.
  2. It is fuelled by liquid propellant only.
  3. It can deliver one-tonne nuclear warheads about 7500 km away.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 and 3 only
  3. 1 and 3 only
  4. 1, 2 and 3

Q.2) The term ‘IndARC’ sometimes seen in the news, is the name of? (2015)

  1. an indigenously developed radar system inducted into Indian Defence
  2. India’s satellite to provide services to the countries of Indian Ocean Rim
  3. a scientific establishment set up by India in Antarctic region
  4. India’s underwater observatory to scientifically study the Arctic region

Source: The Hindu


Lokpal

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Polity
  • Mains – GS 2 (Statutory, Regulatory and various Quasi-judicial Bodies)

Why in News: Lokpal to get permanent office at World Trade Centre in Delhi

  • The Lokpal and Lokayukta Act, 2013 provided for the establishment of Lokpal for the Union and Lokayukta for States
  • They perform the function of an “ombudsman” and inquire into allegations of corruption against certain public functionaries and for related matters.

Structure of Lokpal

  • Lokpal is a multi-member body that consists of one chairperson and a maximum of 8 members.
  • Chairperson of the Lokpal should be either the former Chief Justice of India or the former Judge of Supreme Court or an eminent person with impeccable integrity and outstanding ability, having special knowledge and expertise of minimum 25 years in the matters relating to anti-corruption policy, public administration, vigilance, finance including insurance and banking, law and management.
  • Out of the maximum eight members, half will be judicial members and minimum 50% of the Members will be from SC/ ST/ OBC/ Minorities and women.
  • The judicial member of the Lokpal should be either a former Judge of the Supreme Court or a former Chief Justice of a High Court
  • The non-judicial member should be an eminent person with impeccable integrity and outstanding ability, having special knowledge and expertise of minimum 25 years in the matters relating to anti-corruption policy, public administration, vigilance, finance including insurance and banking, law and management.
  • The term of office for Lokpal Chairman and Members is 5 years or till the age of 70 years.
  • The members are appointed by the president on the recommendation of a Selection Committee.
  • The selection committee is composed of the Prime Minister who is the Chairperson; Speaker of Lok Sabha, Leader of Opposition in Lok Sabha, Chief Justice of India or a Judge nominated by him/her and One eminent jurist.
  • For selecting the chairperson and the members, the selection committee constitutes a search panel of at least eight persons.
  • In 2019, Pinaki Chandra Ghose was appointed as chairperson of Lokpal

Lokpal Jurisdiction and Powers

  • Jurisdiction of Lokpal includes Prime Minister, Ministers, members of Parliament, Groups A, B, C and D officers and officials of Central Government.
  • Its jurisdiction also includes any person who is or has been in charge of anybody/ society set up by central act or any other body financed/ controlled by central government and any other person involved in act of abetting, bribe giving or bribe-taking.
  • The Lokpal Act mandates that all public officials should furnish the assets and liabilities of themselves as well as their respective dependents.
  • It has the powers to superintendence over, and to give direction to CBI
  • The Inquiry Wing of the Lokpal has been vested with the powers of a civil court.
  • Lokpal has the power to recommend transfer or suspension of public servant connected with allegation of corruption.
  • Lokpal has the power to give directions to prevent the destruction of records during the preliminary inquiry.
  • Lokpal has powers of confiscation of assets, proceeds, receipts and benefits arisen or procured by means of corruption in special circumstances.

Previous Year Questions (PYQs)

Q.1) Consider the following statements: (2017)

  1. The Election Commission of India is a five-member body.
  2. The Union Ministry of Home Affairs decides the election schedule for the conduct of both general elections and bye-elections.
  3. Election Commission resolves the disputes relating to splits/mergers of recognised political parties.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2only
  2. 2 only
  3. 2 and 3 only
  4. 3 only

Source: The Hindu


World Press Freedom Index

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Important reports and index

In News: The 20th World Press Freedom Index was published by Reporters Without Borders (RSF)

Key findings

  • The index reveals a two-fold increase in polarisation amplified by information chaos – that is, media polarisation fuelling divisions within countries, as well as polarisation between countries at the international level.
  • Within democratic societies, divisions are growing as a result of the spread of opinion media and the spread of disinformation circuits that are amplified by the way social media functions
  • At the international level, democracies are being weakened by the asymmetry between open societies and despotic regimes that control their media and online platforms while waging propaganda wars against democracies.
  • Polarisation on these two levels is fuelling increased tension. The invasion of Ukraine (106th) by Russia (155th) reflects this process.
  • Rise in use of legislative arsenal to confine its population and cut it off from the rest of the world, China (175th)
  • Confrontation between “blocs” are growing, for instance, for instance India (150th) and Pakistan (157th)
  • Media polarisation is feeding and reinforcing internal social divisions in democratic societies such as the United States (42nd )
  • The trio of Nordic countries at the top of the Index – Norway(1st), Denmark and Sweden – continues to serve as a democratic model where freedom of expression flourishes
  • The world’s 5 worst countries for press freedom include Myanmar (176th), Turkmenistan (177th), Iran (178th), Eritrea (179th) and North Korea (180th).

Methodology

  • RSF developed a new methodology to compile the 20th World Press Freedom Index.
  • The new methodology defines press freedom as “the effective possibility for journalists, as individuals and as groups, to select, produce and disseminate news and information in the public interest, independently from political, economic, legal and social interference, and without threats to their physical and mental safety.”
  • In order to reflect press freedom’s complexity, five new indicators are now used to compile the Index: the political context, legal framework, economic context, sociocultural context, and security.

Performance of India

  • India has slipped 8 places on the World Press Freedom Index 2022
  • With a global score of 41, India has gone down to the 150th position from 142 last year.

Previous Year Questions (PYQs)

Q.1) “Rule of Law Index” is released by which of the following? (2018)

  1. Amnesty International
  2. International Court of Justice
  3. The Office Of UN Commissioner for Human Rights
  4. World Justice Project

Article 161

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Syllabus

  • Prelims – Polity
  • Mains – GS 2 (Appointment to various Constitutional Posts, Powers, Functions and Responsibilities of various Constitutional Bodies.)

In News: Tamil Nadu Governor has made a reference (mercy petition) under Article 161 to the President

Article 161

  • Article 161 provides that the Governor of a State shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the State extends.
  • It is on lines with Article 72 conferred upon President of India

Article 72: provides the pardoning power to the President of India, it says:

The President shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence-

  • in all cases where the punishment or sentence is by a Court-martial;
  • in all cases where the punishment or sentence for an offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends;
  • in all cases where the sentence is a sentence of death.

Supreme Court has noted that

  • The President has to act on the advice of the Council of Ministers while deciding mercy pleas
  • The sovereign power of a Governor to pardon a prisoner under Article 161 is actually exercised by the State government and not the Governor on his own.
  • The advice of the appropriate government binds the Head of the State.

What Happened?

  • Tamil Nadu state governor has referred the mercy petition under Article 161 to the President for his consideration
  • The state government stand is that the Governor has not only obstructed the implementation of the decision of the Council of Ministers, which had the unanimous backing of the Legislature, but he also proceeded to refer the matter to the President for his consideration which violates the principles of constitution.

Previous Year Questions (PYQs)

Q.1) Which of the following are the discretionary powers given to the Governor of a State? (2014)

  1. Sending a report to the President of India for imposing the President’s rule
  2. Appointing the Ministers
  3. Reserving certain bills passed by the State Legislature for consideration of the President of India
  4. Making the rules to conduct the business of the State Government

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 and 2 only
  2. 1 and 3 only
  3. 2, 3 and 4 only
  4. 1, 2, 3 and 4

Source: The Hindu


Police Reforms

Syllabus

  • GS-2: Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive; Issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure
  • GS-2: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation.

Why in News: “Even today, the common perception is that one should stay away from police. It is a general notion that once a person wears the uniform, he controls everything”. PM Modi said these words while attending the first convocation of the Rashtriya Raksha University (RRU) in Gujarat as he stressed on need for Police reforms.

Read Complete Details on Police Reforms – CLICK HERE


Daily Practice MCQs


Q.1) With reference to Lokpal, consider the following statements

  1. It is a constitutional body
  2. Only the former Chief Justice of India can become the chairperson of the Lokpal
  3. The term of office for Lokpal Chairman and Members is 5 years or till the age of 70 years

Choose the incorrect statements:

  1. 1 only
  2. 1, 2 and 3
  3. 2 only
  4. 1 and 2

Q.2) The World Press Freedom Index recently in news is published by?

  1. International Federation of Journalists
  2. Amensty International
  3. Reports Without Borders
  4. UN Human Rights and UNESCO

Q.3) With references to pardoning power of the President, consider the following statements

  1. The power of the President to grant pardon extends in cases where the punishment or sentence is by a Court Martial
  2. The President can grant pardon in all cases where the sentence given is the sentence of death
  3. The President cannot exercise his power of pardon independent of the government

Choose the correct statements:

  1. 1 and 2
  2. 2 and 3
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 1, 2 and 3

ANSWERS FOR 4th MAY 2022 – Daily Practice MCQs

1 d
2 c
3 d

 

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