In news: The Nobel Peace Prize for 2022 has been awarded to Ales Bialiatski, Memorial group of Russia and Centre for Civil Liberties of Ukraine who stand against Russia and has made a statement towards Russia’s war in Ukraine.
About Ales Bialiatski:
- He is a Belarus civil rights activist who promotes democracy and peaceful development in his country.
- He is being held without trial in jail since 2021 and despite tremendous hardship, has not yielded in his fight for human rights.
- He found the Belarus human rights group Viasna (Spring) in 1995 to defend and expose violations of human rights and to build a just and free society.
- He is a vocal critic of Putin’s ally, President Alexander Lukashenko of Belarus.
- Belarus’s support to Russia – offered country’s territory to Russian troops for launching attacks into Ukraine and its soldiers are said to have fought alongside Russian troops.
About Memorial group of Russia:
- It is the largest human rights organisation in Russia and was shut down by Putin.
- Its objective was to record atrocities committed during the communist regime, especially under Joseph Stalin.
- It is based on the notion that confronting past crimes is essential in preventing new ones. It is the most authoritative source of information on political prisoners in Russian detention facilities, also leads efforts to combat militarism.
- It documents victims of the Stalinist era, and compiled information on political oppression and human rights violations in Russia. It highlighted war abuses and crimes by Russia in Chechen wars.
- The organisation was stamped as a “foreign agent” early on, and in December 2021, the Supreme Court ruled that it must be liquidated and the documentation centre shut permanently.
About Centre for Civil Liberties, Ukraine:
- Centre for Civil Liberties is a Ukrainian rights organisation that is documenting alleged war crimes by Russia in Ukraine.
- Founded in Kyiv in 2007 with the aim of advancing human rights and democracy in Ukraine, it has taken a stand to strengthen Ukrainian civil society and pressure the authorities to make Ukraine a full-fledged democracy.
- It has actively advocated that Ukraine become affiliated with the International Criminal Court.
- Since Russia’s invasion in February 2022, the Centre has engaged in efforts to identify and document Russian war crimes against the Ukrainian civilian population in collaboration with international partners
- The Peace Prize winners represent civil society in their home countries.
- They have for many years promoted the right to criticise power and protect the fundamental rights of citizens.
- They have made an outstanding effort to document war crimes, human rights abuses and the abuse of power
- Together they demonstrate the significance of civil society for peace and democracy.
- This year’s winners have revitalised and honoured Alfred Nobel’s vision of peace and fraternity between nations — a vision most needed in the world today.
Methodology of Nobel Peace Prize
- The Nobel Peace Prize has often mirrored current geopolitical choices of the West.
- The winner of the Peace Nobel is chosen by a committee of five persons selected by Norway’s Parliament.
- The names of nominators and nominees cannot be divulged for 50 years.
- Among eligible nominators are members of national assemblies and national governments of sovereign states as well as current heads of state, and members of The International Court of Justice and The Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague.
About Nobel Prize:
- Nobel Prizes are a group of five separate prizes awarded to “those who have conferred the greatest benefit to humankind.
- Named after, Alfred Nobel, a Swedish chemist, engineer, and industrialist most famously known for the invention of dynamite.
- Nobel Prizes were first awarded in 1901.
- The prizes carry a cash award of 10 million Swedish kronor (nearly $900,000).
- The money comes from a bequest left by the prize’s creator, Alfred Nobel, who died in 1895.
Source: Indian Express