• IASbaba
  • February 23, 2023
  • 0
Science and Technology
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Context: Recent studies probed the link between the  gut microbiome  and autism spectrum disorders.

Key Findings:

  • Investigations of the dynamic cross-talk between the gut microbiome and the host environment have revealed potential connections to ASD symptoms.
  • Biological crosstalk :refers to instances in which one or more components of one signal transduction pathway affects another
  • The gut microbiome is believed to have a big impact on immune modulation and metabolic activities in the human body.
  • Immune modulation: refers to the efforts of the immune system to ensure its response is proportionate to a threat.

About Autism Spectrum Disease:

  • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the term for a group of neurodevelopmental disorders.
  • It is characterized by difficulties in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication, and the presence of repetitive behavior and restricted interests.
  • Signs of autism usually appear by age 2 or 3. Some associated development delays can appear as early as 18 months.
  • There is no cure for autism.
  • In 2008, the United Nations General Assembly unanimously declared 2ndApril as World Autism Awareness Day.

About the Human microbiome:

  • The collective genome of all micro-organisms contained within the human body, residing inside tissues and bio-fluids is called Human Microbiome.
  • Most of them have either commensal (co-existing without harming humans) or mutualistic (each benefit from the other).
  • These organisms play a key role in many aspects of host physiology such as :
  • The metabolism of complex indigestible carbohydrates and fats to produce essential vitamins
  • Maintaining immune systems and
  • Acting as the first line of defense against pathogens.


Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Consider the following statements in respect of probiotics : (2022)

  1. Probiotics are made of both bacteria and yeast.
  2. The organisms in probiotics are found in foods we ingest but they do not naturally occur in our gut.
  3. Probiotics help in the digestion of milk sugars.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

  1. 1 only
  2. 2 only
  3. 1 and 3
  4. 2 and 3

Q.2) Which one of the following statements best describes the role of B cells and T cells in the human body?(2022)

  1. They protect the environmental allergens. body
  2. They alleviate the body’s pain and inflammation.
  3. They act as immunosuppressants in the body.
  4. They protect the body from diseases caused by pathogens.


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