• IASbaba
  • March 4, 2023
  • 0
History and Art and Culture
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Context: Recently, the ancient city of Sisupalgarh was in news due to the damages by the Land mafias.

About Sisupalgarh:

  • It is located near the city of Bhubaneswar in Odisha.
  • It was once the capital of Kalinga, which is the ancient name of Odisha.
  • It dates back prior to the Mauryan period.
  • It is a 2,000-year-old fortified city.
  • It is considered one of the largest and best-preserved ancient fortifications in India.
  • The remains of the fortification were discovered in 1948 by the Indian archaeologist B.B. Lal.

Features of Sisupalgarh :

  • It was designed and constructed in a complete square shape that was surrounded by defensive walls.
  • Each side spreads for over half a mile, and the interior is full of stone ruins and sculptures.
  • The walls of the fortification are a little over nine meters (30 feet) tall.
  • There were eight gateways into the city, two on each of the four sides of the wall.
  • The gateways were connected by streets in a grid-like arrangement with the palace in the center.
  • The gates were elaborate structures made of brick and stone.
  • There is evidence of stone-lined reservoirs that were likely used for harvesting rainwater.
  • Intelligent traffic management, pedestrian-friendly pathways, grand gateways with guard houses, wide roads, and a vast open space.
  • It is identified with Kalinganagara of Kharavela and Tosali of Ashoka.
  • The construction of Sisupalgarh was based on JalaDurga(Water Fort) concept, which in Odia is known as the GadaKhai concept.
  • Jala Durga is a type of Durga or fort, which must be situated within a water body.
  • It is divided into two categories, viz., the Anterdvipa (Island fort) and the Sthala Durga (Land fort).
  • Antardvipa-Durga (island fortress) is surrounded by natural (sea or river) water bodies.
  • Sthala-Durga (plain fortress) is surrounded by artificial moats or irrigated by a river.



Previous Year Questions

Q.1) Consider the following pairs: (2021)

Historical place           Well-known for

  1. (1) Burzahom              Rock-cut shrines
  2. (2) Chandraketugarh  Terracotta art
  3. (3) Ganeshwar Copper artifacts

Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?

  1. 1 only
  2. 1 and 2
  3. 3 only
  4. 2 and 3

Q.2) Which one of the following statements is correct? (2021)

  1. Ajanta Caves lie in the gorge of the Waghora river. 
  2. Sanchi Stupa lies in the gorge of the Chambal river.
  3. Pandu – lena cave shrines lie in the gorge of the Narmada river.
  4. Amaravati Stupa lies in the gorge of the Godavari river.


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