History and Art and Culture
Context: Recently, the ancient city of Sisupalgarh was in news due to the damages by the Land mafias.
- It is located near the city of Bhubaneswar in Odisha.
- It was once the capital of Kalinga, which is the ancient name of Odisha.
- It dates back prior to the Mauryan period.
- It is a 2,000-year-old fortified city.
- It is considered one of the largest and best-preserved ancient fortifications in India.
- The remains of the fortification were discovered in 1948 by the Indian archaeologist B.B. Lal.
Features of Sisupalgarh :
- It was designed and constructed in a complete square shape that was surrounded by defensive walls.
- Each side spreads for over half a mile, and the interior is full of stone ruins and sculptures.
- The walls of the fortification are a little over nine meters (30 feet) tall.
- There were eight gateways into the city, two on each of the four sides of the wall.
- The gateways were connected by streets in a grid-like arrangement with the palace in the center.
- The gates were elaborate structures made of brick and stone.
- There is evidence of stone-lined reservoirs that were likely used for harvesting rainwater.
- Intelligent traffic management, pedestrian-friendly pathways, grand gateways with guard houses, wide roads, and a vast open space.
- It is identified with Kalinganagara of Kharavela and Tosali of Ashoka.
- The construction of Sisupalgarh was based on JalaDurga(Water Fort) concept, which in Odia is known as the GadaKhai concept.
- Jala Durga is a type of Durga or fort, which must be situated within a water body.
- It is divided into two categories, viz., the Anterdvipa (Island fort) and the Sthala Durga (Land fort).
- Antardvipa-Durga (island fortress) is surrounded by natural (sea or river) water bodies.
- Sthala-Durga (plain fortress) is surrounded by artificial moats or irrigated by a river.
Source: THE HINDU
Previous Year Questions
Q.1) Consider the following pairs: (2021)
Historical place Well-known for
- (1) Burzahom Rock-cut shrines
- (2) Chandraketugarh Terracotta art
- (3) Ganeshwar Copper artifacts
Which of the pairs given above is/are correctly matched?
- 1 only
- 1 and 2
- 3 only
- 2 and 3
Q.2) Which one of the following statements is correct? (2021)
- Ajanta Caves lie in the gorge of the Waghora river.
- Sanchi Stupa lies in the gorge of the Chambal river.
- Pandu – lena cave shrines lie in the gorge of the Narmada river.
- Amaravati Stupa lies in the gorge of the Godavari river.
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